Ebooks for you

Sweet Madness: A Study Of Humor - Isbn:9781412843881

Category: Psychology

  • Book Title: Sweet Madness: A Study of Humor
  • ISBN 13: 9781412843881
  • ISBN 10: 141284388X
  • Author: William F. Fry
  • Category: Psychology
  • Category (general): Psychology
  • Publisher: Transaction Publishers
  • Format & Number of pages: 208 pages, book
  • Synopsis: Who gets to sit in the front seat when the family goes driving? Who sits next to the window? Who gets the drumstick from the roast chicken? Social hierarchy and aggressive-submissive interaction relationships can be easily seen to 100 Sweet  ...

Another description

Sweet Madness: A Study of Humor - ISBN:9781412843881

Laughter

This article includes a list of references. but its sources remain unclear because it has insufficient inline citations . Please help to improve this article by introducing more precise citations. (January 2009)

Workers laughing in a clothing factory.

Laughter is a physical reaction in humans and some other species of primate, consisting typically of rhythmical, often audible contractions of the diaphragm and other parts of the respiratory system. It is a response to certain external or internal stimuli. Laughter can arise from such activities as being tickled. [ 1 ] or from humorous stories or thoughts. [ 2 ] Most commonly, it is considered a visual expression of a number of positive emotional states, such as joy, mirth, happiness. relief. etc. On some occasions, however, it may be caused by contrary emotional states such as embarrassment, apology, or confusion such as nervous laughter or courtesy laugh. Age, gender, education, language, and culture are all factors [ 3 ] as to whether a person will experience laughter in a given situation.

Laughter is a part of human behavior regulated by the brain. helping humans clarify their intentions in social interaction and providing an emotional context to conversations. Laughter is used as a signal for being part of a group — it signals acceptance and positive interactions with others. Laughter is sometimes seen as contagious, and the laughter of one person can itself provoke laughter from others as a positive feedback. [ 4 ] This may account in part for the popularity of laugh tracks in situation comedy television shows.

The study of humor and laughter, and its psychological and physiological effects on the human body, is called gelotology .

Source:

en.rfwiki.org

Articles

Sweet Madness: A Study of Humor - ISBN:9781412843881

Laughter

Laughing is a reaction to certain stimuli, fundamentally stress. which serves as an emotional balancing mechanism. Traditionally, it is considered a visual expression of happiness. or an inward feeling of joy. It may ensue from hearing a joke. being tickled. or other stimuli. It is in most cases a very pleasant sensation.

Laughter is found among various animals, as well as in humans, although it is more rare in most mammals and animals overall. Among the human species, it is a part of human behavior regulated by the brain. helping humans clarify their intentions in social interaction and providing an emotional context to conversations. Laughter is used as a signal for being part of a group—it signals acceptance and positive interactions with others. Laughter is sometimes seen as contagious, and the laughter of one person can itself provoke laughter from others as a positive feedback. [ 1 ] This may account in part for the popularity of laugh tracks in situation comedy television shows. Laughter is anatomically caused by the epiglottis constricting the larynx. The study of humor and laughter, and its psychological and physiological effects on the human body, is called gelotology .

Contents Nature of laughter

Laughter is a common response to tickling

Two girls laughing

Children are known to laugh a great deal more than adults: an average baby laughs 300 times a day compared to an average adult, who laughs 20 times a day. According to some studies, the onset of adulthood causes a gradual change characterized by increased seriousness and a diminished engagement in laughter. [ 2 ] Laughter is an audible expression or appearance of excitement, an inward feeling of joy. It may ensue from jokes. tickling. and other stimuli. Researchers have shown infants as early as 17 days old have vocal laughing sounds or laughter. [ 3 ] It conflicts with earlier studies indicating that infants usually start to laugh at about four months of age. Laughter researcher Robert Provine said: "Laughter is a mechanism everyone has; laughter is part of universal human vocabulary. There are thousands of languages, hundreds of thousands of dialects, but everyone speaks laughter in pretty much the same way.” Babies have the ability to laugh before they ever speak. Children who are born blind and deaf still retain the ability to laugh. [ citation needed ]

Provine argues that “Laughter is primitive, an unconscious vocalization.” Provine argues that it probably is genetic. In a study of the “Giggle Twins”, two happy twins who were separated at birth and only reunited 43 years later, Provine reports that “until they met each other, neither of these exceptionally happy ladies had known anyone who laughed as much as she did.” They reported this even though they both had been brought together by their adoptive parents, who they indicated were “undemonstrative and dour.” He indicates that the twins “inherited some aspects of their laugh sound and pattern, readiness to laugh, and maybe even taste in humor.” [ 4 ]

Norman Cousins developed a recovery program incorporating megadoses of Vitamin C, along with a positive attitude, love, faith, hope, and laughter induced by Marx Brothers films. "I made the joyous discovery that ten minutes of genuine belly laughter had an anesthetic effect and would give me at least two hours of pain-free sleep," he reported. "When the pain-killing effect of the laughter wore off, we would switch on the motion picture projector again and not infrequently, it would lead to another pain-free interval." [ 5 ] [ 6 ]

Scientists have noted the similarity in forms of laughter induced by tickling among various primates. which suggests that laughter derives from a common origin among primate species. [ 7 ] [ 8 ]

A very rare neurological condition has been observed whereby the sufferer is unable to laugh out loud, a condition known as aphonogelia. [ 9 ]

Laughter and the brain

Principal fissures and lobes of the cerebrum viewed laterally. (Frontal lobe is blue, temporal lobe is green.)

Scientists have shown that parts of the limbic system are involved in laughter. [ citation needed ] This system is involved in emotions and helps us with functions necessary for humans' survival. The structures in the limbic system that are involved in laughter: the hippocampus and the amygdala. [ citation needed ]

The December 7, 1984, Journal of the American Medical Association describes the neurological causes of laughter as follows:

"Although there is no known 'laugh center' in the brain, its neural mechanism has been the subject of much, albeit inconclusive, speculation. It is evident that its expression depends on neural paths arising in close association with the telencephalic and diencephalic centers concerned with respiration. Wilson considered the mechanism to be in the region of the mesial thalamus, hypothalamus. and subthalamus. Kelly and co-workers, in turn, postulated that the tegmentum near the periaqueductal grey contains the integrating mechanism for emotional expression. Thus, supranuclear pathways, including those from the limbic system that Papez hypothesised to mediate emotional expressions such as laughter, probably come into synaptic relation in the reticular core of the brain stem. So while purely emotional responses such as laughter are mediated by subcortical structures, especially the hypothalamus, and are stereotyped, the cerebral cortex can modulate or suppress them."

Laughter and health

A link between laughter and healthy function of blood vessels was first reported in 2005 by researchers at the University of Maryland Medical Center with the fact that laughter causes the dilatation of the inner lining of blood vessels, the endothelium. and increases blood flow. [ 10 ] Drs. Michael Miller (University of Maryland) and William Fry (Stanford), theorize that beta-endorphin like compounds released by the hypothalamus activate receptors on the endothelial surface to release nitric oxide, thereby resulting in dilation of vessels. Other cardioprotective properties of nitric oxide include reduction of inflammation and decreased platelet aggregation. [ 11 ] [ 12 ]

Laughter has also been shown to have beneficial effects on various other aspects of biochemistry. For example, laughter has been shown to lead to reductions in stress hormones such as cortisol and epinephrine. When laughing the brain also releases endorphins that can relieve some physical pain. [ 13 ] Laughter also boosts the number of antibody-producing cells and enhances the effectiveness of T-cells, leading to a stronger immune system [ 14 ] .

Causes

Late 19th century or early 20th century depiction of different stages of laughter on advertising cards

Common causes for laughter are sensations of joy and humor; however, other situations may cause laughter as well.

A general theory that explains laughter is called the relief theory. Sigmund Freud summarized it in his theory that laughter releases tension and "psychic energy". This theory is one of the justifications of the beliefs that laughter is beneficial for one's health. [ 15 ] This theory explains why laughter can be used as a coping mechanism when one is upset, angry or sad .

Philosopher John Morreall theorizes that human laughter may have its biological origins as a kind of shared expression of relief at the passing of danger. Friedrich Nietzsche. by contrast, suggested laughter to be a reaction to the sense of existential loneliness and mortality that only humans feel.

For example: a joke creates an inconsistency and the audience automatically try to understand what the inconsistency means; if they are successful in solving this 'cognitive riddle ' and they realize that the surprise was not dangerous, they laugh with relief. Otherwise, if the inconsistency is not resolved, there is no laugh, as Mack Sennett pointed out: "when the audience is confused, it doesn't laugh". This is one of the basic laws of a comedian. referred to "exactness". It is important to note that sometimes the inconsistency may be resolved and there may still be no laugh. Because laughter is a social mechanism, an audience may not feel as if they are in danger, and the laugh may not occur. In addition, the extent of the inconsistency (and aspects of it timing and rhythm) has to do with the amount of danger the audience feels, and how hard or long they laugh. This explanation is confirmed by modern neurophysiology in the study of laughter and the brain .

Laughter can also be brought on by tickling. Although it is found unpleasant by most people, being tickled often causes heavy laughter which is thought to be a reflex of the body, and is often uncontrollable. [ 16 ] [ 17 ]

Human Laugh Structure and Anatomy

A normal laugh has the structure of “ha-ha-ha” or “ho-ho-ho.” It is unnatural, and one is physically unable to have a laugh structure of “ha-ho-ha-ho.” The usual variations of a laugh most often occur in the first or final note in a sequence- therefore, “ho-ha-ha” or “ha-ha-ho” laughs are possible. Normal note durations with unusually long or short “inter-note intervals” do not happen due to the result of the limitations of our vocal chords. This basic structure allows one to recognize a laugh despite individual variants. [ 18 ]

It has also been determined that eyes moisten during laughter as a reflex from the tear glands. [ 14 ]

Negative aspects

Laughter is not always a pleasant experience and is associated with several negative phenomena. Excessive laughter can lead to cataplexy. and unpleasant laughter “spells”, excessive elation, and fits of laughter can all be considered negative aspects of laughter. Unpleasant laughter spells, or “sham mirth,” usually occur in people who have a neurological condition; including patients with pseudobulbar palsy. multiple sclerosis and Parkinson’s disease. These patients appear to be laughing out of amusement but report that they are feeling undesirable sensations “at the time of the punch line". Excessive elation is a common symptom associated with manic-depressive psychoses and mania /hypomania. Those who suffer from schizophrenic psychoses seem to suffer the opposite- they do not understand humor or get any joy out of it. A fit describes an abnormal time when one cannot control the laughter or one’s body- sometimes leading to seizures or a brief period of unconsciousness. Some believe that fits of laughter represent a form of epilepsy [ 19 ] .

See also References Further reading
  • Bachorowski, J.-A. Smoski, M.J. & Owren, M.J. The acoustic features of human laughter. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 110 (1581) 2001
  • Bakhtin, Mikhail (1941). Rabelais and His World. Bloomington: Indiana University Press. ISBN  0253348307.  
  • Chapman, Antony J.; Foot, Hugh C.; Derks, Peter (editors), Humor and Laughter: Theory, Research, and Applications . Transaction Publishers, 1996. ISBN 1-56000-837-7. Books.google.com
  • Cousins, Norman, Anatomy of an Illness As Perceived by the Patient. 1979.
  • Davila-Ross, M. Allcock, B. Thomas, C. and Bard K.A. (2011) Aping expressions? Chimpanzees produce distinct laugh types when responding to laughter of others. Emotion doi: 10.1037/a0022594
  • Fried, I. Wilson, C.L. MacDonald, K.A. and Behnke EJ. Electric current stimulates laughter. Nature, 391:650, 1998 (see patient AK)
  • Goel, V. & Dolan, R. J. The functional anatomy of humor: segregating cognitive and affective components. Nature Neuroscience 3, 237 - 238 (2001).
  • Greig, John Young Thomson, The Psychology of Comedy and Laughter. New York, Dodd, Mead and company, 1923.
  • Marteinson, Peter, On the Problem of the Comic: A Philosophical Study on the Origins of Laughter. Legas Press, Ottawa, 2006. utoronto.ca
  • Miller M, Mangano C, Park Y, Goel R, Plotnick GD, Vogel RA.Impact of cinematic viewing on endothelial function.Heart. 2006 Feb;92(2):261-2.
  • Provine, R. R. Laughter . American Scientist, V84, 38:45, 1996. ucla.edu
  • Quentin Skinner (2004) (PDF). Hobbes and the Classical Theory of Laughter . http://fds.oup.com/www.oup.co.uk/pdf/0-19-926461-9.pdf. Retrieved 2006-10-23.   included in book: Sorell, Tom; Luc Foisneau (2004). "6". Leviathan After 350 Years . Oxford University Press. pp. 139–66. ISBN  0199264619. ISBN 9780199264612 ISBN 0-19-926461-9. http://fds.oup.com/www.oup.co.uk/pdf/0-19-926461-9.pdf.  
  • Raskin, Victor, Semantic Mechanisms of Humor (1985).
  • MacDonald, C. "A Chuckle a Day Keeps the Doctor Away: Therapeutic Humor & Laughter" Journal of Psychosocial Nursing and Mental Health Services(2004) V42, 3:18-25. psychnurse.org
  • Kawakami, K. et al. Origins of smile and laughter: A preliminary study Early Human Development (2006) 82, 61-66. kyoto-u.ac.jp
  • Johnson, S. Emotions and the Brain Discover (2003) V24, N4. discover.com
  • Panksepp, J. Burgdorf, J.,“Laughing” rats and the evolutionary antecedents of human joy? Physiology & Behavior (2003) 79:533-547. psych.umn.edu
  • Milius, S. Don't look now, but is that dog laughing? [dead link ] Science News (2001) V160 4:55. sciencenews.org
  • Simonet, P. et al. Dog Laughter: Recorded playback reduces stress related behavior in shelter dogs 7th International Conference on Environmental Enrichment (2005). petalk.org
  • Discover Health (2004) Humor & Laughter: Health Benefits and Online Sources . helpguide.org
  • Klein, A. The Courage to Laugh: Humor, Hope and Healing in the Face of Death and Dying. Los Angeles, CA: Tarcher/Putman, 1998.
  • Ron Jenkins Subversive laughter (New York, Free Press, 1994), 13ff
  • Bogard, M. Laughter and its Effects on Groups. New York, New York: Bullish Press, 2008.
  • Humor Theory. The formulae of laughter by Igor Krichtafovitch, Outskitspress, 2006, ISBN 978-1-59800-222-5
  • Hans-Georg Moeller und Günter Wohlfart (Hrsg.): Laughter in Eastern and Western Philosophies. Verlag Karl Alber, Freiburg / München 2010. ISBN 978-3-495-48385-5
External links

Wikimedia Foundation. 2010 .

Source:

en.academic.ru

Sweet Madness: A Study of Humor

Written for all who are interested in the mechanics of humor, Sweet Madness presents a general discussion and introduction to the roles of paradox, metaphor, and fantasy in humor. The operation of the implicit and the unconscious in humor; the importance of humor to human life; and the development, from childhood on, of the sense of humor are discussed. The background for this serious study is drawn from such fields as psychiatry, psychology, anthropology, and sociology. William F. Fry, in this work, presents a new theory of the structure of humor based on the sometimes little understood psychological processes experienced by those who use humor or are exposed to humor. It is these relationships with other fields of study that allows for this investigation into the anatomy of humor. Fry, in this outstanding and erudite volume, takes a giant step in furthering our thinking about humor in transactional terms. Humor and a sense of humor are a vital part of human interactions, and as such, this book has much to contribute to the study of psychology, cultural, communications, and of coursehumor itself.

  • © Copyright 2000-2016 Doğan Müzik Kitap Mağazacılık ve Pazarlama A.Ş. Tüm hakları saklıdır.
  • Bilgi Toplumu Hizmetleri

Tarayıcınızın javascripti kapalıdır! Javascript kapalı iken siteyi verimli kullanmanız mümkün değildir. Lütfen tarayıcınızın javascriptini etkinleştiriniz.

Source:

www.dr.com.tr

Download Book: Sweet Madness

Download Book: Sweet Madness

SRX Madness US

The 2013 SRX is thoughtfully refined and intelligently advanced. At the forefront of its groundbreaking new technology is CUE1Cadillac User Experience. CUE. Manual and child safety seat instructions for more safety information. 2. OnStar acts as a link

SRX Madness US was added on 2014-01-28 has been download 34 which last down load at 2014-11-04 18:41:43

Bass Madness

In Bass Madness. fishing authority Ken Schultz goes behind the scenes of the so-called “Super Bowl of bass fishing” to uncover what turned an unassuming sport into a full-blown sporting spectacle complete with athletes, spectators, TV cameras, an.

Bass Madness was added on 2015-04-01 has been download 1 which last down load at 2015-04-01 23:40:08

The Music Of Madness

The Music of Madness is a book about a young, talented concert flutist and her harrowing journey from sanity into Madness and back again. This true story is an odyssey that takes you through the dark cells of mental institutions to the lighted stages.

The Music Of Madness was added on 2015-02-28 has been download 1 which last down load at 2015-02-28 03:30:15

Models Of Madness

Are hallucinations and delusions really symptoms of an illness called ‘schizophrenia’? Are mental health problems really caused by chemical imbalances and genetic predispositions? Are psychiatric drugs as effective and safe as the drug companies.

Models Of Madness was added on 2015-02-24 has been download 3 which last down load at 2016-07-20 13:09:33

Divine Madness

'Divine Madness. Archetypes of Romantic Love' examines the transforming experience of romantic love in literature, myth, religion, and everyday life. A series of psychological meditations on the nature of romantic love and human relationship, Divine.

Divine Madness was added on 2015-02-24 has been download 5 which last down load at 2016-10-15 14:22:22

Garden Of Madness

The untold story of King Nebuchadnezzar's daughter.

Garden Of Madness was added on 2015-02-22 has been download 3 which last down load at 2016-09-16 08:17:21

Reefer Madness

America’s black market is much larger than we realize, and it affects us all deeply, whether or not we smoke pot, rent a risqué video, or pay our kids’ nannies in cash. In Reefer Madness the best.

Reefer Madness was added on 2014-03-29 has been download 403 which last down load at 2014-11-06 16:22:20

Murder By Madness 9/11

Murder By Madness 9/11 is not just the history of the most notorious attack upon American shores, it is a banking caper. Just who are the financiers of terrorism? As always, follow the money.

Murder By Madness 9/11 was added on 2015-04-24 has been download 3 which last down load at 2016-07-09 13:22:00

At The Mountains Of Madness

H. P. Lovecraft was one of the greatest horror writers of all time. His seminal work appeared in the pages of legendary Weird Tales and has influenced countless writer of the macabre. This is one of t.

At The Mountains Of Madness was added on 2014-03-27 has been download 204 which last down load at 2014-10-26 23:42:44

Manga Madness

The author shares advice and techniques that will help readers mimic their favorite Japanese comic book techniques, covering issues such as shading, perspective, and foreshortening, as well as Japanese terms and character types from within the style.

Manga Madness was added on 2014-10-20 has been download 6 which last down load at 2014-11-02 13:00:03

Source:

www.productmanualguide.com

Sweet Madness: A Study of Humor by William F

Sweet Madness: A Study of Humor

Written for all who are interested in the mechanics of humor, Sweet Madness presents a general discussion and introduction to the roles of paradox, metaphor, and fantasy in humor. The operation of the implicit and the unconscious in humor; theMore Written for all who are interested in the mechanics of humor, Sweet Madness presents a general discussion and introduction to the roles of paradox, metaphor, and fantasy in humor. The operation of the implicit and the unconscious in humor; the importance of humor to human life; and the development, from childhood on, of the sense of humor are discussed. The background for this serious study is drawn from such fields as psychiatry, psychology, anthropology, and sociology. William F. Fry, in this work, presents a new theory of the structure of humor based on the sometimes little understood psychological processes experienced by those who use humor or are exposed to humor. It is these relationships with other fields of study that allows for this investigation into the anatomy of humor. Fry, in this outstanding and erudite volume, takes a giant step in furthering our thinking about humor in transactional terms. Humor and a sense of humor are a vital part of human interactions, and as such, this book has much to contribute to the study of psychology, cultural, communications, and of course, humor itself. Less

Get a copy Friends’ Reviews

To see what your friends thought of this book, please sign up .

Community Reviews

Espen Helgesen rated it it was amazing

over 3 years ago

Filippo Sottile added it ∙ review of another edition

about 2 years ago

Stefanie added it

almost 5 years ago

COM Library Rarian added it

about 1 year ago

Rossella Cutraro added it ∙ review of another edition

about 2 years ago

Anastasia added it ∙ review of another edition

over 3 years ago

Igor added it

about 2 years ago

Leonardo added it

about 2 years ago

Owen added it

almost 2 years ago

Rachel added it

over 1 year ago

Deborah added it Other Books by this Author

Advances in Humor and Psychotherapy

by William F. Fry

Handbook of Humor and Psychotherapy.

by William F. Fry

Life Studies of Comedy Writers

by William F. Fry

Enjoyment of Laughter

Source:

www.goodreads.com

Tags: who gets the drumstick ebook readers