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Crash Course Nervous System - Isbn:9780723437710

Category: Medical

  • Book Title: Crash Course Nervous System
  • ISBN 13: 9780723437710
  • ISBN 10: 0723437718
  • Author: Jenny Ross
  • Category: Medical
  • Category (general): Medical
  • Publisher: Elsevier Health Sciences
  • Format & Number of pages: 320 pages, book
  • Synopsis: The cranial parasympathetic nervous system outflow comes from several nuclei in the brainstem. Structures in the head are supplied by the ciliary, pterygopalatine, otic and submandibular ganglia which receive inputs from cranial nerves III, ...

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Crash Course Nervous System

The new series of Crash Course continues to provide readers with complete coverage of the MBBS curriculum in an easy-to-read, user-friendly manner. Building on the success of previous editions, the new Crash Courses retain the popular and unique features that so characterised the earlier volumes. All Crash Courses have been fully updated throughout.

  • More than 160 illustrations present clinical, diagnostic and practical information in an easy-to-follow manner
  • Friendly and accessible approach to the subject makes learning especially easy
  • Written by students for students - authors who understand exam pressures
  • Contains ‘Hints and Tips’ boxes, and other useful aide-mémoires
  • Succinct coverage of the subject enables ‘sharp focus’ and efficient use of time during exam preparation
  • Contains a fully updated self-assessment section - ideal for honing exam skills and self-testing
    • Self-assessment section fully updated to reflect current exam requirements
    • Contains ‘common exam pitfalls’ as advised by faculty
    • Crash Courses also available electronically!
    • Online self-assessment bank also available - content edited by Dan Horton-Szar!

    Now celebrating over 10 years of success - Crash Course has been specially devised to help you get through your exams with ease.

    Completely revised throughout, the new edition of Crash Course is perfectly tailored to meet your needs by providing everything you need to know in one place. Clearly presented in a tried and trusted, easy-to-use, format, each book in the series gives complete coverage of the subject in a no-nonsense, user-friendly fashion.

    Commencing with 'Learning Objectives', each chapter guides you succinctly through the topic, giving full coverage of the curriculum whilst avoiding unnecessary and often confusing detail. Each chapter is also supported by a full artwork programme, and features the ever popular 'Hints and Tips' boxes as well as other useful aide-mémoires. All volumes contain an up-to-date self-assessment section which allows you to test your knowledge and hone your exam skills.

    Authored by students or junior doctors - working under close faculty supervision - each volume has been prepared by someone who has recently been in the exam situation and so relates closely to your needs. So whether you need to get out of a fix or aim for distinction Crash Course is for you!!

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    Articles

    Crash Course Nervous System

    Crash Course Nervous System

    The new series of Crash Course continues to provide readers with complete coverage of the MBBS curriculum in an easy-to-read, user-friendly manner. Building on the success of previous editions, the new Crash Courses retain the popular and unique features that so characterised the earlier volumes. All Crash Courses have been fully updated throughout.

    • More than 160 illustrations present clinical, diagnostic and practical information in an easy-to-follow manner
  • Friendly and accessible approach to the subject makes learning especially easy
  • Written by students for students - authors who understand exam pressures
  • Contains ‘Hints and Tips’ boxes, and other useful aide-mémoires
  • Succinct coverage of the subject enables ‘sharp focus’ and efficient use of time during exam preparation
  • Contains a fully updated self-assessment section - ideal for honing exam skills and self-testing
    • Self-assessment section fully updated to reflect current exam requirements
    • Contains ‘common exam pitfalls’ as advised by faculty
    • Crash Courses also available electronically!
    • Online self-assessment bank also available - content edited by Dan Horton-Szar!

    Now celebrating over 10 years of success - Crash Course has been specially devised to help you get through your exams with ease.

    Completely revised throughout, the new edition of Crash Course is perfectly tailored to meet your needs by providing everything you need to know in one place. Clearly presented in a tried and trusted, easy-to-use, format, each book in the series gives complete coverage of the subject in a no-nonsense, user-friendly fashion.

    Commencing with 'Learning Objectives', each chapter guides you succinctly through the topic, giving full coverage of the curriculum whilst avoiding unnecessary and often confusing detail. Each chapter is also supported by a full artwork programme, and features the ever popular 'Hints and Tips' boxes as well as other useful aide-mémoires. All volumes contain an up-to-date self-assessment section which allows you to test your knowledge and hone your exam skills.

    Authored by students or junior doctors - working under close faculty supervision - each volume has been prepared by someone who has recently been in the exam situation and so relates closely to your needs. So whether you need to get out of a fix or aim for distinction Crash Course is for you!!

    Source:

    www.idefix.com

    Crash Course Nervous System 2: How Action Potentials Work

    Crash Course Nervous System 2: How Action Potentials Work

    Action Potential via Crash Course

    Post 2 in the Crash Course series on how the nervous system works: Action Potential !

    Neurons are extraordinary cells. Beyond being intricately branched and gigantic relative to most cells, every second hundreds of billions of electrical impulses called action potentials are transmitted in your body. Before we check out how that works, it’s useful to refresh a few electricity terms.

    Voltage is a difference in electrical charge. In neurons, voltage is measured in milivolts (1/1000th of a volt) and is called membrane potential. The greater the charge difference, the greater the membrane potential. Current is the flow of electricity. In neurons, currents refer to the flow of positive or negative ions across cell membranes. But before we get to the flow of current, let’s understand the default or “resting state” of a neuron:

    Your body is separated from the outside world by skin. This allows the internal state of your body to have different conditions than the outside world. Neurons have their own “skin” in the form of a cell membrane. It has ion gates – macromolecules made of many proteins – that change shape when specific molecules are present, allowing other specific ions (charged particles) to pass through the cell membrane. The movement of these ions changes the charge of the cell, causing a cascade of activity.

    When neurons are at rest and not receiving electrical signal. their internal charge is negative thanks to the activity of a remarkable macromolecular machine: the sodium-potassium pump. This trans-membrane protein actively pumps sodium ions across their concentration gradient to the outside of the cell.

    Sodium potassium pump maintains an electrochemical gradient inside neurons (shown in teal). The purple molecule at bottom right is ATP, providing energy to activate the pump. For every two positively charged potassium ions (blue) it pumps in, it pumps out three positively charged potassium ions (red), making it more positively charged outside the neuron. Via Crash Course

    In addition to sodium potassium pumps, neurons have many types of ion channels .

    Ion channels allow many charged ions to pass across a cell membrane. As charged particles rapidly diffuse across the membrane, they depolarize it, thus changing its charge.

    Here are a few different types of ion gates:

    The most common ion channels are voltage gated. They open at certain membrane potential thresholds. Via crash course

    Other ion channels include Ligand gates (red), activated by neurotransmitters such as acetylcholine, and Mechanical gates (yellow), activated by physical stretching. via Crash Course

    How an Action Potential Works

    When all these gates are closed, a neuron is at rest. It’s polarized with a static membrane potential voltage of -70 mV .

    Resting state membrane potential via Crash Course

    But say a stimuli hits a neuron, triggering an ion channel to open. As ions pass into the cell (much faster than shown below), they alter the membrane’s charge. Watch the white line to the right. It rises as voltage approaches a very important threshold: -55 mV.

    It’s all about getting to -55 mV. Sodium ions (red) enter neuron. Via Crash Course

    Why -55 mV? At this threshold, thousands of voltage gated sodium channels open. A flood of positively charged sodium ions enter the cell and it becomes rapidly positively charged or depolarized. But this change in charge won’t last long.

    Sodium gates (purple) let forth a flood of positive sodium ions (red) into the neuron, resulting in depolarization. Via Crash Course

    As a neuron reaches an internal charge of around +30 mV, a conformational shape change happens in the sodium channels. They close and voltage gated potassium channels open, allowing positively charged potassium ions to leave the cell.

    Membrane repolarization. Sodium channels (light purple) close. Potassium channels (dark purple) open and diffuse positively charged ions out of the cell. via Crash Course

    This drops the internal charge of the neuron briefly below its resting state of -70 mV, activating the sodium potassium pumps to finish the job and bring the neuron to a maintained homeostasis. The entire process lasts 1-2 ms (1/1000th of a second).

    Action potential moves through a neuron branch. Via Crash Course

    In this manner, action potentials propagate down neuron branches as chain reactions, causing a wave of depolarizations and repolarizations. Action potentials only travel in one direction.

    So an action potential is moving along a branch when suddenly it reaches the end, the point of no return: a synapse.

    via Crash Course

    A number of things can happen when an action potential reaches a synapse. To keep it simple, let’s consider the case of a chemical synapse. the type of junction that uses neurotransmitters.

    Action potentials here activate local voltage gated calcium channels, releasing a flow of positive ions into the cell. The calcium causes sack like structures full of neurotransmitters called vesicles to release their contents into the synaptic cleft, the area between two neurons.

    An action potential reaches the end of the line: a chemical synapse. Via Crash Course

    Neurotransmitters are released from vesicles into the synaptic cleft, a region less than five millionths of a centimeter wide. They bind to receptor sites on the postsynaptic cell, triggering either excitation or inhibition. Via Crash Course

    There are many types of neurotransmitters. Some are excitatory; others are inhibitory.

    Here’s how excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmitters differ when it comes to the electrodynamics of neurons (see post 1 for a refresher on membrane potential). All images by Crash Course :

    Inhibitory neurotransmitters push neurons farther away from their threshold for having an action potential (hyperpolarization), making it harder for them to fire. Via Crash Course Excitatory neurotransmitters bring neurons closer to their threshold for having an action potential (depolarizing them), making it easier for them to fire. Via Crash Course

    It’s neither a single synapse nor a single neurotransmitter that matters. There are over one hundred different types of neurotransmitters and over 100 trillion synapses in your brain. A single neuron can have thousands or even tens of thousands of synapses. As Hank Green points out in this video, “the likelihood of a postsynaptic neuron developing an action potential depends on the sum of the excitation and inhibition in an area.” This is commonly called constructive signal summation and is illustrated by EyeWire’s first scientific discovery (Nature 2014).

    A few more Action Potential Factoids

    Immediately following an action potential, neurons have a refractory period, a brief bit of time where they are not responsive to further stimuli. If another stimuli reaches a neuron during this period, it will not cause an action potential, no matter how strong the incoming signal is. This results in action potentials only propagating in one direction.

    Neurons have consistent voltage thresholds: -55 mV activation,

    +30 mV repolarization. They vary their signals then not by Voltage (amplitude) but by frequency and speed (conduction velocity).

    Weaker stimuli tend to produce slower, lower frequency signals while stronger or more intense stimuli tend to produce more rapid, higher frequency signals.

    Myelinated (insulated) neurons, such as are found in white matter and the peripheral nervous system, send the fastest signals.

    Myelinated action potential travels oh so fast because it effectively “leaps” from one myelin gap (nodes of ranvier) to the next. Via Crash Course

    In the central nervous system, Myelin is produced by cells called Oligodendrocytes, which wrap around axons.

    Oligodendrocyte merrily making myelin sheaths. Via Crash Course

    Thanks for reading. Be sure to subscribe to Crash Course on YouTube and let us know what you think about this post in EyeWire chat. For science!

    Why EyeWire?

    Solving the mysteries of the brain requires something more powerful than a supercomputer - YOU. Together, we're mapping neural circuits to decipher the mysteries of vision.

    EyeWire is a game to map the brain from Sebastian Seung's Computational Neuroscience Lab at Princeton. Over 150,000 people from 145 countries play.

    Competition Schedule: Meme Teams, every other Thurs. Happy Hour Every Friday 2-4 pm US ET.

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    Crash Course Nervous System - Jenny Ross, E-Book

    Crash Course Nervous System

    The new series of Crash Course continues to provide readers with complete coverage of the MBBS curriculum in an easy-to-read, user-friendly manner. Building on the success of previous editions, the new Crash Courses retain the popular and unique features that so characterised the earlier volumes. All Crash Courses have been fully updated throughout. More than 160 illustrations present clinical, diagnostic and practical information in an easy-to-follow manner Friendly and accessible approach to the subject makes learning especially easy Written by students for students - authors who understand exam pressures Contains 'Hints and Tips' boxes, and other useful aide-memoires Succinct coverage of the subject enables 'sharp focus' and efficient use of time during exam preparation Contains a fully updated self-assessment section - ideal for honing exam skills and self-testing Self-assessment section fully updated to reflect current exam requirements Contains 'common exam pitfalls' as advised by faculty Crash Courses also available electronically! Online self-assessment bank also available - content edited by Dan Horton-Szar! Now celebrating over 10 years of success - Crash Course has been specially devised to help you get through your exams with ease. Completely revised throughout, the new edition of Crash Course is perfectly tailored to meet your needs by providing everything you need to know in one place. Clearly presented in a tried and trusted, easy-to-use, format, each book in the series gives complete coverage of the subject in a no-nonsense, user-friendly fashion. Commencing with 'Learning Objectives', each chapter guides you succinctly through the topic, giving full coverage of the curriculum whilst avoiding unnecessary and often confusing detail. Each chapter is also supported by a full artwork programme, and features the ever popular 'Hints and Tips' boxes as well as other useful aide-memoires. All volumes contain an up-to-date self-assessment section which allows you to test your knowledge and hone your exam skills. Authored by students or junior doctors - working under close faculty supervision - each volume has been prepared by someone who has recently been in the exam situation and so relates closely to your needs. So whether you need to get out of a fix or aim for distinction Crash Course is for you!!

    Titel: Crash Course Nervous System
    Autoren/Herausgeber: Jenny Ross
    Aus der Reihe: Crash Course

    Seitenzahl: 320
    Produktform: E-Book
    Sprache: Englisch

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    Crash Course Nervous System - 4th Edition ISBN: 9780723437710

    Crash Course Nervous System Description

    The new series of Crash Course continues to provide readers with complete coverage of the MBBS curriculum in an easy-to-read, user-friendly manner. Building on the success of previous editions, the new Crash Courses retain the popular and unique features that so characterised the earlier volumes. All Crash Courses have been fully updated throughout.

    Key Features
    • More than 160 illustrations present clinical, diagnostic and practical information in an easy-to-follow manner
  • Friendly and accessible approach to the subject makes learning especially easy
  • Written by students for students - authors who understand exam pressures
  • Contains ‘Hints and Tips’ boxes, and other useful aide-mémoires
  • Succinct coverage of the subject enables ‘sharp focus’ and efficient use of time during exam preparation
  • Contains a fully updated self-assessment section - ideal for honing exam skills and self-testing Table of Contents

    Part I: Basic Medical Science of the Nervous System- Overview of the nervous system, cellular Physiology of the nervous system, Pharmacology of the central nervous system, The spinal cord, Somatosensation and the perception of pain, Motor control, Vision, Hearing, Olfaction and taste (gustation), The brainstem, Neuroendocrinology, The autonomic nervous system, The anatomy of higher function, Introduction to neuropsychology, Functional aspects of higher functions, Basic pathology, Pathology of the peripheral nerves and muscle, Neurogenetics;

    Part II: Clinical Assessment- Common presentations of neurological disease, The neurological assessment, Further investigations;

    Part III: Self-assessment- MCQs, SAQs, EMQs

    Details

    Source:

    www.elsevier.com

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