The Steinerner Steg (German for "Stone bridge"; Italian. "Ponte Romano") is an old bridge across the Passirio River in Merano. province of Bolzano-Bozen. Italy. The bridge features two arches. Despite its designation as a Roman bridge, the structure actually dates from the 17th century when the old county of Tyrol was ruled by various lines of the Habsburg familyFact|date=July 2008 .
* Colin O'Connor, "Roman Bridges", Cambridge Univ. Press (1994) ISBN 0-521-39326-4, p.95
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Steinerner Steg — Der Steinerne Steg Der Steinerne Steg ist eine alte Brücke über die Passer in Meran im Burggrafenamt (Südtirol). Die zweibögige Brücke wurde 1616–17 anstelle einer älteren Holzbrücke vom Brixner Architekten Andrä Tanner errichtet; sie ist heute… … Deutsch Wikipedia
Steinerner Steg (Meran) — El Steinerner Steg. El Steinerner Steg (alemán para puente de piedra) es un puente sobre el Passer en la ciudad de Merano en Provincia autónoma de Bolzano (Italia). Construido en 1616 17, el puente tiene dos arcos. El nombre italiano Ponte Romano … Wikipedia Español
Steinerner Steg (Meran) — Der Steinerne Steg Der Steinerne Steg ist eine alte Brücke über die Passer in Meran in Südtirol (Italien). Die zweibögige Brücke wurde 1616 17 anstelle einer älteren Holzbrücke vom Brixner Architekten Andrä Tanner errichtet; sie ist heute für den … Deutsch Wikipedia
Merano — Meran (ital: Merano) Bezirksgemeinschaft … Deutsch Wikipedia
Obermais — Meran (ital: Merano) Bezirksgemeinschaft … Deutsch Wikipedia
Chau Say Tevoda — Das Westtor des Chau Say Tevoda ist sorgfältig restauriert. Der Chau Say Tevoda (Khmer ប្រាសាទចៅសាយទេវតា) ist ein kompakter, ursprünglich hinduistischer Flachtempel in unmittelbarer Nachbarschaft der historischen Stadtanlage Angkor Thom… … Deutsch Wikipedia
Merano — Comune Stadtgemeinde Meran Comune di Merano … Wikipedia
Selzen — Wappen Deutschlandkarte … Deutsch Wikipedia
The Stone Bridge in Regensburg. Germany, is a 12th-century bridge across the Danube linking the Old Town with Stadtamhof. For more than 800 years, until the 1930s, it was the city's only bridge across the river. It is a masterwork of medieval construction and an emblem of the city.Location Regensburg Sausage Kitchen
The south end of the bridge may have been the location of an ancient city gate.Archäologische Grabungen: Die aktuellen Grabungsergebnisse. Aktuelles, Steinerne Brücke, Tourismus, Stadt Regensburg The early 16th-century Amberg Salt Store and the early 17th-century Regensburg Salt Store were built against it.Lageplan der Steinernen Brücke, Architektur und Baugeschichte. Projekt Steinerne Brücke zu Regensburg, Geschichte, University of Regensburg The Regensburg Sausage Kitchen east of the Salt Store was built against the city wall in the 14th century; an earlier building on the same site probably served as a canteen for the workers building the bridge. Historische Wurstkuchl. Tourismus, Stadt Regensburg Further east is the Regensburg Museum of Danube Shipping .
The bridge has historically caused problems for traffic on the Danube,Oskar Teubert, Die Binnenschiffahrt: ein Handbuch für alle Beteiligten volume 1 Leipzig: Engelmann, 1912, 143. "Bei Regensburg selbst bietet die altere steinerne Brücke mit ihren kleinen Öffnungen und dicken Pfeilern das größte Hindernis für eine durchgehende Schiffahrt."Franz Ržiha, "Die Steinerne Brücke bei Regensburg", Allgemeine Bauzeitung mit Abbildungen 43 (1878) 3540, 4549, p. 36 as was observed by Napoleon in 1809."Votre grand pont est très désavantageusement construit pour la navigation", quoted in Jörg Traeger, "Die Spur Napoleons in der KunstBilder aus Bayern" in Eva Dewes and Sandra Duhem, eds. Kulturelles Gedächtnis und interkulturelle Rezeption im europäischen Kontext. Vice versa 1, Berlin: Akademie, 2008, ISBN 978-3-05-004132-2, pp. 50132, p. 529 It causes strong currents which required upstream shipping with insufficient power to be towed past it until 1916, when an electric system was installed to draw ships under the bridge. This was removed in 1964. Since modern barge traffic requires more clearance than the arches of the bridge provide, this stretch of the river is now only used by recreational and excursion shipping. Larger watercraft bypass it to the north by means of the Regensburg Regen-Danube Canal, which was built on the flood plain called the Protzenweiher which had been used for a cattle market and public amusementsKurt Wilhelm Kippels, Der völkerrechtliche Status des zukünftigen Europakanals und seine Auswirkungen auf das Rhein- und Donauregime. Schriften zum Völkerrecht 62, Berlin: Duncker & Humblot, 1978, ISBN 978-3-428-04256-2, p. 95 Richard Strobel, Hubert Bauch, et al. Regensburg, die Altstadt als Denkmal: Altstadtsanierung, Stadtgestaltung, Denkmalpflege. Munich: Moos, 1978, ISBN 978-3-7879-0133-3, tzenweiher&dq=Protzenweiher&hl=en&sa=X&ei=yFcoT4iaCYPYiQKYhqywAQ&ved=0CE8Q6AEwBQ p. 159 Helmut Halter, Stadt unterm Hakenkreuz: Kommunalpolitik in Regensburg während der NS-Zeit. Regensburger Studien und Quellen zur Kulturgeschichte 1, Regensburg: Universitätsverlag Regensburg, 1994, ISBN 978-3-9803470-6-8, p. 466 and forms part of the European Water Route between Rotterdam at the mouth of the Rhine and Constance on the Black Sea. (Demolition of the bridge to remove the obstruction was proposed as early as 1904."Die Wiederherstellung der Schiffbarkeit der oberen Donau", Zentralblatt der Bauverwaltung 23 January 1904, pp. 4042, p. 41 )
Charlemagne had a wooden bridge built at Regensburg, approximately 100m east of the present bridge, but it was inadequate for the traffic and vulnerable to floods, so it was decided to replace it with a stone bridge.
The Stone Bridge was built in only eleven years, probably in 113546.The Stone Bridge: 850 Years in Regensburg, Enduring Time and Man. Regensburg.deJohn Dornberg, "Where the Middle Ages Live". The New York Times 18 January 1987. Louis VII of France and his army used it to cross the Danube on their way to the Second Crusade. It served as a model for other stone bridges built in Europe in the 12th and 13th centuries: the Elbe bridge in Dresden. London Bridge across the Thames, the Pont d'Avignon across the Rhône and the Judith Bridge (predecessor of the Charles Bridge) across the Vltava in Prague. It remained the only bridge across the Danube at Regensburg for about 800 years, until the construction of the Nibelungen Bridge. For centuries it was the only bridge over the river between Ulm and Vienna, making Regensburg into a major centre of trade and government."Steinerne BrückeNadelöhr für den Fernhandel", "13. Jahrhundert: Regensburg". Das bayerische Jahrtausend Episode 3, Bayerisches Fernsehen, Bayerischer Rundfunk, 3 April 2011, updated 9 January 2012 (video)
The bridge originally had its own administration, using a seal depicting it, the oldest example of which dates to 1307; tolls were used for its upkeep.Das Stadt- und Brückenwappen. Denkmäler an der Steinernen Brücke, Projekt Steinerne Brücke zu Regensburg
The Stone Bridge is an arch bridge with 16 arches. At the south end, the first arch and first pier were incorporated into the Regensburg Salt Store when it was built in 161620, but remain in place under the approach road to the bridge. An archaeological investigation was performed in 2009, and revealed fire damage during the Middle Ages. The bridge was originally 336m long; the building in of the first pier reduced it to 308.7m.Technische Daten, Architektur und Baugeschichte. Projekt Steinerne Brücke zu Regensburg The southern, Old Town end of the bridge is half a metre lower than the northern, Stadtamhof end, and the bridge bends slightly because of the course of the river at that point.
Construction of the bridge was made easier by an unusually hot, dry summer in 1135, which caused very low water levels in the Danube.Ržiha, p. 37. Some of the bridge piers are on the two islands in the Danube within the city, the Upper and Lower Wöhrd. The others rest on foundations of oak logs on the riverbed, which were constructed inside cofferdams of oak planking. To protect them from being undermined by the river, they are surrounded by pillar-shaped artificial islands or abutments; these were enlarged in 1687. The bridge abutments are a substantial impediment to the flow of water, with as little as 4 metres between them, creating strong whirling currents under the bridge and downstream, which are referred to as the "Regensburg Danube Strudel". Five of them were reduced in size in 1848 as part of construction of the Ludwig Canal, and they were all reduced and strengthened with concrete and stone during renovation work in 195162. The construction using abutments is a modification of the technique used by the Romans for the bridge over the Mosel at Trier, where the piers rest directly on the riverbed.
Watermills were built at the south end of the bridge, making use of the currents it created; the revenues contributed to the upkeep of the bridge. The Bavarians had them burnt in 1633 during the Thirty Years' War; some were rebuilt in 1655 but in 1784 an ice dam on the river destroyed them. One was rebuilt at the foot of the Salt Store for a few more years.Die ehemaligen Mühlen, Architektur und Baugeschichte. Projekt Steinerne Brücke zu Regensburg
In the Thirty Years' War, during the Swedish attack on the city in 1633, the fourth bridge span (the third now visible) was blown up. The gap was filled by a wooden drawbridge and only repaired in 1790/91 after it became apparent that the missing section was weakening the bridge.Krieg und Zerstörung im Umkreis der Steinernen Brücke, Architektur und Baugeschichte. Projekt Steinerne Brücke zu Regensburg
The bridge originally had three towers, of which only the south tower, a gate tower to the Old City, survives. The original south tower was built around 1300; beside it stood a chapel of St Margaret. In the mid-16th century this was converted into a debtors' prison and the tower became known as the Debt Tower (Schuldturm ).Das Brücktor, Architektur und Baugeschichte. Projekt Steinerne Brücke zu Regensburg The middle tower was built around 1200.Der ehemalige Mittelturm, Architektur und Baugeschichte. Projekt Steinerne Brücke zu Regensburg Both the south and the middle towers were destroyed by fire in the Thirty Years' War, when the city was under occupation by the Swedes. They were rebuilt in 1648, the clock being added to the south tower at that time, but the middle tower was demolished in 1784 after being almost destroyed by the ice dam. The north tower (the Black Tower), was probably built in the second half of the 12th century, in association with the bridge itself.Der Schwarze Turm, Architektur und Baugeschichte. Projekt Steinerne Brücke zu Regensburg It was heavily fortified between 1383 and 1429, including a drawbridge. This tower was damaged in 1809 during the Napoleonic Wars when the French and Bavarians retook the city from the Austrians, and had to be demolished the next year. In 1824/25 the site where it had stood was widened to accommodate a bazaar.
The chapel was removed and replaced by a tollhouse in 1829. In the early 20th century, when the tram way was built, all buildings between the remaining tower and the Amberg Salt Store were removed, widening the street approaching the bridge, and a wide arch was built over it beside the tower. Late in the Second World War, on 23 April 1945, German troops dynamited the second pier of the bridge immediately in front of that point, and also the eleventh, to slow the advance of American troops. The Americans installed temporary planking the following winter, but the damage was not fully repaired until 1967.
The bridge originally had thick stone balustrades, with very narrow pedestrian gangways beside them. The balustrades were replaced in 1732 with thinner slabs of sandstone, widening the roadway.Ržiha, p. 40. In 1877 these were in turn replaced with granite from Flossenbürg. and the wooden ramp which had connected the bridge to the Upper Wöhrd since 1499 was replaced with an iron one at the same time. Finally, in 1950, the bridge was given concrete balustrades.
The north end of the bridge was formerly the border between the Duchy (later Electorate) of Bavaria and the Free Imperial City of Regensburg. At the highest point of the bridge is a stone carving called the Bruckmandl or Brückenmännchen (bridge mannikin), a largely naked young man shielding his eyes with one hand and with an inscription reading "Schuck wie heiß" (likely a reference to the hot summer when the bridge was begun). He has been said to symbolise the city's freedoms and its emancipation from the control of the Bishop. He has also been said to represent the bridge builder, and another figure on the cathedral to represent the cathedral builder.Zwei Regensburger Wahrzeichen oder "Des Baumeisters Bund mit dem Teufel". Sagen über Dom und Brückenbau, Sagen und Zeitgeschichte: Rund um die Steinerne Brücke, Projekt Steinerne Brücke zu Regensburg He was originally seated on the roof of a mill, and now sits on the bridge itself on the roof of a miniature toll-house. The current version is the third. The original was replaced in 1579; the current statue was erected on 23 April 1854.Das Brückmännchen. Denkmäler an der Steinernen Brücke, Projekt Steinerne Brücke zu Regensburg The 1579 statue, which lost its legs and arms in the fighting in 1809, is in the Regensburg Museum of History. There was formerly a crucifix on the bridge; it was removed in 1694.
The bridge also has a number of other sculptures: full statues of Emperor Friedrich II (standing on a masked head with ram's horns, and originally on the now demolished north tower; the current statue is a 1930 replica),Kaiser Friedrich II. Denkmäler an der Steinernen Brücke, Projekt Steinerne Brücke zu Regensburg Philip of Swabia and his consort Queen Irene (both enthroned and originally on the middle tower; Philip's sculpture is a replica)Sitzfigur des Philipp von Schwaben. Denkmäler an der Steinernen Brücke, Projekt Steinerne Brücke zu Regensburg Sitzfigur der Königin Irene. Denkmäler an der Steinernen Brücke, Projekt Steinerne Brücke zu Regensburg and reliefs including various arms (including both the city and the bridge itself), heads that may be those of the original builder and the rebuilders later in the Middle Ages,Skulpturen männlicher Köpfe an der steinernen Brüche. Denkmäler an der Steinernen Brücke, Projekt Steinerne Brücke zu Regensburg a lizard,Stein und Eidechse. Denkmäler an der Steinernen Brücke, Projekt Steinerne Brücke zu Regensburg a basilisk,Der Basilisk an der Steinernen Brücke. Denkmäler an der Steinernen Brücke, Projekt Steinerne Brücke zu Regensburg a weasel,Die Reliefskulptur eines Wiesels. Denkmäler an der Steinernen Brücke, Projekt Steinerne Brücke zu Regensburg a lion (replaced with a replica in 1966),Der Löwe an der Steinernen Brücke. Denkmäler an der Steinernen Brücke, Projekt Steinerne Brücke zu Regensburg two roosters fightingDie kämpfenden Hähne an der Steinernen Brücke. Denkmäler an der Steinernen Brücke, Projekt Steinerne Brücke zu Regensburg and a reclining dog.Die Plastik eines liegenden Hundes. Denkmäler an der Steinernen Brücke, Projekt Steinerne Brücke zu Regensburg There were also originally an apotropaic mask and a Roman sculpture of a winged lion on the middle tower. The roosters and the dog have been related to the legend about the building of the bridge; alternatively the Bruckmandl, the basilisk, the dog, the three heads and a now lost "small stone within a large stone" which was in the floor of the watchman's hut next to the middle tower have all been interpreted as Christian symbolism indicating that the bridge was the work of a school of clerical architects.Ržiha, pp. 4849 .
The bridge and the cathedral are the two major emblems of the city.Ulf Vogler, "Steinerne Brücke in Regensburg:Rettung für Wahrzeichen" n-tv 17 February 2007 However, the bridge has been seriously damaged by heavy traffic in recent decades and by water and salt damage from poor drainage and lack of sealing of the masonry.Warum ist eine Instandsetzung so dringend notwendig?. Instandsetzung, Tourismus, Stadt Regensburg For over a decade, the bridge was closed to private vehicles, and beginning in 2005 it was remotely monitored 24 hours a day from Nuremberg for signs of impending collapse. On the evening of 1 August 2008 it was also closed to buses and taxis and became a pedestrian and bicycle bridge. This was because of a report that the balustrades would be insufficient to stop a bus."Steinerne gesperrt: Was steckt dahinter?". Regensburg-digital 3 August 2008
The bridge has been under restoration since 2010; completion was originally expected in 2014 but is now expected in 2017 at the earliest.Ablauf der Instandsetzung. Instandsetzung, Tourismus, Stadt Regensburg Mathias Wagner, "Auf der Brücke geht’s endlich weiter". Mittelbayerische Zeitung. 19 August 2013 Temporary bridges are being used to enable the over 120,000 annual users of the bridge to bypass the section being rebuilt. The State of Bavaria conducted a thorough search taking two years and costing 100,000 € to find appropriate stone to use in restoration, similar in colour and structure to the original material of the bridge and sufficiently tough and resistant to weathering. A satisfactory kind of sandstone was eventually found in an abandoned quarry near Ihrlerstein."Steinerne Brücke: Regensburger Haltung ärgert Ihrlersteiner Unternehmer". Mittelbayerische Zeitung 22 February 2010 The bridge is to remain closed to motor vehicles after the renovation.
There is a legend that the bridge builder and the cathedral builder had a bet as to who would finish first. When the building of the cathedral progressed faster than that of the bridge, the bridge builder made a pact with the Devil: the Devil would aid him in exchange for the first three souls (or the first eight feet) to cross the bridge. The Devil helped as requested, and the bridge was finished first. But the bridge builder sent a rooster, a hen and a dog across the bridge first. A statue of a falling man on the cathedral is said to represent the master throwing himself off in reaction. Enraged, the Devil attempted to destroy the bridge, but failed, but that is why it is bent. In fact the bridge was already complete when construction began on the cathedral in 1273.Sources
Lovely young Silvia Bradstreet comes from London to an isolated estate off the coast of colonial Georgia to be an indentured servant. But a far different fate awaits her. Clothed in finery and pampered like a queen, she finds herself a pawn in the devious schemes of Wilhelm Schlange, master of Serpent Tree Hall, as he manipulates the family members who hope to inherit his vast fortune. Haunted by ghostly dreams and threatened by the island's deadly secrets, Silvia cannot trust her own senses, much less anyone around her. Most of all, she dare not trust her growing passion for Schlange's nephew, handsome sea captain Roman Toller. His lips move like a hot flame over her flesh and draw the very breath from her body. Can Roman offer Silvia an escape from her dark fate--or is he leading her closer to destruction?
She crossed an ocean to find a new start in life.
Instead, she was caught in web of danger, seduction, and deceit.
At Serpent Tree Hall, nothing is as it seems and no one can be trusted - including the man she loves.
Lovely young Silvia Bradstreet comes from London to an isolated estate off the coast of colonial Georgia to be an indentured servant. But a far different fate awaits her. Clothed in finery and pampered like a queen, she finds herself a pawn in the devious schemes of Wilhelm Schlange, master of Serpent Tree Hall, as he manipulates the family members who hope to inherit his vast fortune.
Haunted by ghostly dreams and threatened by the island's deadly secrets, Silvia cannot trust her own senses, nor anyone around her. Most of all, she dare not trust her growing passion for Schlange's nephew, handsome sea captain Roman Toller. His lips move like a hot flame over her flesh and draw the very breath from her body. She wants to believe Roman cares for her, but how can she be sure? Is he Silvia's only hope of escaping her dark fate - or is Roman leading her to destruction?
"An entertaining blend of eerie shadows and romantic interludes. An excellent Gothic romance."
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About the Author
Andrea Parnell is the award-winning author of ten novels, short fiction and articles, with more than one million copies of her books in print. Her works include Gothic, Western, and other historical and contemporary romances. Several of her books have been set in her home state of Georgia. Andrea has received both the Maggie and Romantic Times Reviewer's Choice awards for her writing, and is a member of Novelists, Inc. (NINC) and past president of the Georgia Authors Network. She is fond of cats, travel, overgrown gardens, and old houses with lots of crooks, crannies, and interesting shadows.
Dark Splendor was previously published in a 1986 paperback edition by NAL. Dark Splendor is approximately 90,000 words.
Similar Books by other authors.
Clemens Wenzeslaus Brentano (also Klemens ; pseudonym: Clemens Maria Brentano ; 9 September 1778 – 28 July 1842) was a German language poet and novelist. and a major figure of German Romanticism. He was the uncle of Franz Brentano.
Clemens Brentano was born to Peter Anton Brentano and Maximiliane La Roche, John F. Fetzer, Clemens Brentano. Twayne Publishers, 1981, p. 11. a wealthy merchant family in Frankfurt on 9 September 1778. Crawford, Heidi. "Clemens Bretano", Encyclopedia of the Romantic Era, 1760-1850. Christopher John Murray (ed.), p. 109, Routledge, 2013, ISBN 9781135455798 His father's family was of Italy descent. His sister was Bettina von Arnim, Goethe's correspondent. He studied in Halle and Jena. afterwards residing at Heidelberg. Vienna and Berlin. He was close to Wieland, Herder, Goethe, Friedrich Schlegel, Gottlieb Fichte and Ludwig Tieck.
From 1798 to 1800 Brentano lived in Jena, the first center of the romantic movement. In 1801, he moved to Göttingen, and became a friend of Achim von Arnim. He married writer Sophie Mereau on 29 October 1803. In 1804, he moved to Heidelberg and worked with Arnim on Zeitungen für Einsiedler and Des Knaben Wunderhorn. After his wife Sophie died in 1806 he married a second time in 1807 to Auguste Bussmann (whose half-sister, Marie de Flavigny, later by marriage the Countess Marie d'Agoult, would become the companion of pianist and composer Franz Liszt ). In the years between 1808 and 1818, Brentano lived mostly in Berlin. and from 1819 to 1824 in Dülmen, Westphalia.
In 1818, weary of his somewhat restless and unsettled life, he returned to the practice of the Catholic faith and withdrew to the monastery of Dülmen, where he lived for some years in strict seclusion. He took on there the position of secretary to the Catholic visionary nun, the beatification Anne Catherine Emmerich.
It was claimed that from 1802 until her death, she bore the wounds of the Crown of Thorns, and from 1812, the full stigmata. including a cross over her heart and the wound from the lance. Clemens Brentano made her acquaintance, was converted to the strong faith, and remained at the foot of the stigmatist's bed copying her dictation without embellishment from 1818-1824. When she died, he prepared an index of the visions and revelations from her journal, The Dolorous Passion of Our Lord Jesus Christ (published 1833). One of these visions made known by Brentano later resulted in the actual identification of the real House of the Virgin Mary in Ephesus by Abbé Julien Gouyet, a French priest, during 1881. However, some posthumous investigations in 1923 and 1928 made it uncertain how much of the books he attributed to Emmerich were actually his own creation and the works were discarded for her beatification process. Emmerich, Anne Catherine, and Clemens Brentano. The Dolorous Passion of Our Lord Jesus Christ. Anvil Publishers, Georgia, 2005 pages 49-56 (Note: the hard copy of this book has a wrong ISBN printed within its frontmatter, but the text (and the wrong ISBN) show up on Google books as published by Anvil Press)
The latter part of his life he spent in Regensburg. Frankfurt and Munich. actively engaged in promoting the Catholic faith. Brentano assisted Ludwig Achim von Arnim, his brother-in-law, in the collection of folk-songs forming Des Knaben Wunderhorn (1805–1808), which Gustav Mahler drew upon for his song cycle. He died in Aschaffenburg.
Brentano, whose early writings were published under the pseudonym Maria, belonged to the Heidelberg group of German romanticism writers, and his works are marked by excess of fantastic imagery and by abrupt, bizarre modes of expression. His first published writings were Satiren und poetische Spiele (Leipzig, 1800), a romance Godwi oder Das steinerne Bild der Mutter (2 vols. Frankfort, 1801), and a musical drama Die lustigen Musikanten (Frankfort, 1803). Of his dramas the best are Ponce de Leon (1804), Victoria und ihre Geschwister (Berlin, 1817) and Die Grundung Prags (Pesth, 1815).
On the whole his finest work is the collection of Romanzen vom Rosenkranz (published posthumously in 1852); his short stories, and more especially the charming Geschichte vom braven Kasperl und dem schönen Annerl (1817), which has been translated into English, were very popular.
Brentano's collected works, edited by his brother Christian, appeared at Frankfurt in 9 vols. (1851–1855). Selections have been edited by J. B. Diel (1873), M. Koch (1892), and J. Dohmke (1893). See J. B. Diel and William Kreiten. Klemens Brentano (2 vols, 1877–1878), the introduction to Koch's edition, and R. Steig, A. von Arnim und K. Brentano (1894).
In his honor the Clemens-Brentano prize is awarded for German literature.
Brentano's work is referenced in Thomas Mann 's novel Doctor Faustus. A cycle of thirteen songs, based on Brentano's poems, is noted in Chapter XXI as one of the composer protagonist's most significant early works.
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