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The Cosmic Perspective - Isbn:9780201473995

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  • Book Title: The Cosmic Perspective
  • ISBN 13: 9780201473995
  • ISBN 10: 0201473992
  • Author: Andrew F. Rex, Jeffrey O. Bennett, Megan Donahue, Nicholas Schneider, Mark Voit
  • Category: Science
  • Category (general): Science
  • Publisher: Addison-Wesley
  • Format & Number of pages: book
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The essential cosmic perspective isbn

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ALERT: Before you purchase, check with your instructor or review your course syllabus to ensure that you select the correct ISBN. Several. The Essential Cosmic Perspective, 6th Edition Test Bank - Jeffrey O. Bennett. Essential Cosmic Perspective, The, If ordering the package, check with your instructor or review your course syllabus to ensure that youselect the correct. Results 1 - 50 of 1928 The Cosmic Perspective: Stars, Galaxies, and Cosmology (6th Edition) by Astronomy Journey to the Cosmic Frontier by Fix, John D. ISBN: Discovering the Essential Universe: With Scientific American by Comins, Neil. Essential Cosmic Perspective Plus MasteringAstronomy with eText, The ISBN-10: 0321927842 The Essential Cosmic Perspective. Herschel 400 Observing Guide - Steve O'Meara - 2007 - ISBN: 978-0521858939 The Essential Cosmic Perspective - Jeffrey O. Bennett, Essential Cosmic Perspective Plus MasteringAstronomy with eText, The -- Access Card Package (7th Edition) (Bennett Science Math Titles) 7th Edition. The Essential Cosmic Perspective, Sixth Edition retains all of the features that have made this text so popular and effective. New features and updates based. Description: The Essential Cosmic Perspective,Sixth Editionretains all of the features that have made this text so popular and effective. New features and updates. ISBN-13: 978-0321724403. ISBN-10: 0321724402. Why is ISBN important? The Essential Cosmic Perspective, Sixth Edition retains all of the features that. The essential cosmic perspective. [Jeffrey O Bennett;] ISBN: 9780321580887 0321580885 9780321580894 0321580893 9780321566942 0321566947 9780321561541 0321561546. Download free ebook: The Essential Cosmic Perspective, 6th Edition. Publisher: Addison-Wesley ; 2010 ; ISBN: 0321718232 ; 533 Pages ; PDF download ebook.

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The cosmic perspective

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Cosmic Perspective, The, 7th Edition

Cosmic Perspective, The, 7th Edition Description

Building on a long tradition of effective pedagogy and comprehensive coverage, The Cosmic Perspective, Seventh Edition provides a thoroughly engaging and up-to-date introduction to astronomy for non-science majors. The text provides a wealth of features that enhance skill-building, including new group work exercises that help you retain concepts longer and build communication skills for the future. The Seventh Edition has also been fully updated to include the latest astronomical observations, results from recent space missions, research, and theoretical developments that inform our understanding of the early universe.

Note: This is a standalone book.

Two volumes of this text are also available:

  • The Cosmic Perspective: The Solar System,Seventh Edition (includes Chapters 1–13, 24)
  • The Cosmic Perspective: Stars, Galaxies, and Cosmology,Seventh Edition (includes Chapters 1–6, S2–S4, 14–24)
Table of Contents

I. DEVELOPING PERSPECTIVE

1. Our Place in the Universe

2. Discovering the Universe for Yourself

3. The Science of Astronomy

S1. Celestial Timekeeping and Navigation

II. KEY CONCEPTS FOR ASTRONOMY

4. Making Sense of the Universe: Understanding Motion, Energy, and Gravity

5. Light and Matter: Reading Messages from the Cosmos

6. Telescopes: Portals of Discovery

III. LEARNING FROM OTHER WORLDS

7. Our Planetary System

8. Formation of the Solar System

9. Planetary Geology: Earth and the Other Terrestrial Worlds

10. Planetary Atmospheres: Earth and the Other Terrestrial Worlds

11. Jovian Planet Systems

12. Asteroids, Comets, and Dwarf Planets: Their Nature, Orbits, and Impacts

13. Other Planetary Systems: The New Science of Distant Worlds

IV. A DEEPER LOOK AT NATURE

S2. Space and Time

S3. Spacetime and Gravity

S4. Building Blocks of the Universe

15. Surveying the Stars

18. The Bizarre Stellar Graveyard

VI. GALAXIES AND BEYOND

20. Galaxies and the Foundation of Modern Cosmology

21. Galaxy Evolution

22. Dark Matter, Dark Energy, and the Fate of the Universe

23. The Beginning of Time

VII. LIFE ON EARTH AND BEYOND

24. Life in the Universe

Enhance your learning experience with text-specific study materials.

This title is also sold in the various packages listed below. Before purchasing one of these packages, speak with your professor about which one will help you be successful in your course.

Includes this title packaged with:

  • SkyGazer 5.0 Student Access Code Card (Integrated component)
    . Carina Software
  • Modified MasteringAstronomy with Pearson eText -- ValuePack Access Card -- for The Cosmic Perspective, 7th Edition
    Jeffrey O. Bennett, Megan O. Donahue, Nicholas Schneider, Mark Voit

Includes this title packaged with:

  • MasteringAstronomy with Pearson eText -- ValuePack Access Card -- for The Cosmic Perspective, 7th Edition
    Jeffrey O. Bennett, Megan O. Donahue, Nicholas Schneider, Mark Voit
  • Starry Night College Student Access Code Card, 7th Edition
    Simulation Curriculum

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  • Edmund Scientific Star and Planet Locator
    Edmund Scientific
  • MasteringAstronomy with Pearson eText -- ValuePack Access Card -- for The Cosmic Perspective, 7th Edition
    Jeffrey O. Bennett, Megan O. Donahue, Nicholas Schneider, Mark Voit
  • Starry Night College Student Access Code Card, 7th Edition
    Simulation Curriculum

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Bennett, Donahue, Schneider - Voit, Cosmic Perspective, The, Books a la Carte Edition

Cosmic Perspective, The, Books a la Carte Edition, 7th Edition
  • Jeffrey O. Bennett, University of Colorado, Boulder
  • Megan O. Donahue, Michigan State University
  • Nicholas Schneider, University of Colorado, Boulder
  • Mark Voit, Space Telescope Science Institute
  • ©2014 
  • | Pearson 
  • | Unbound (Saleable) 
  • | 832 pp 
  • | ISBN13: 9780321840943 
  • |  See the new edition!

Suggested retail price: $133.33

Overview Description

This edition features the exact same content as the traditional text in a convenient, three-hole-punched, loose-leaf version. Books a la Carte also offer a great value for your students–this format costs 35% less than a new textbook.

Building on a long tradition of effective pedagogy and comprehensive coverage, The Cosmic Perspective, Seventh Edition provides a thoroughly engaging and up-to-date introduction to astronomy for non-science majors. The text provides a wealth of features that enhance student skill-building, including new group work exercises that engage students in active learning, helping them retain concepts longer and build communication skills for the future. The Seventh Edition has also been fully updated to include the latest astronomical observations, results from recent space missions, and new theoretical developments that inform our understanding of the early universe.

This text is also available in two volumes, which can be purchased separately:

The CosmicPerspective: The Solar System, Seventh Edition (includes Chapters 1—13, 24)

The Cosmic Perspective: Stars, Galaxies, and Cosmology,Seventh Edition (includes Chapters 1—6, S2—S4, 14—24)

This package consists of:

Books a la Carte for The Cosmic Perspective, Seventh Edition

This product accompanies
Cosmic Perspective Plus MasteringAstronomy with eText -- Access Card Package, 7th Edition

Bennett, Donahue, Schneider & Voit

  • ©2014
  •  | Pearson
  •  | Paper Bound with Access Card
  •  | 832 pp
  •  | ISBN-13: 9780321839503
Previous Edition(s)
Cosmic Perspective, The, Books a la Carte Edition, 6th Edition

Bennett, Donahue, Schneider & Voit

  • ©2010
  •  | Pearson
  •  | Unbound (Saleable)
  •  | 832 pp
  •  | ISBN-13: 9780321696083

Source:

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Void (astronomy)

Void (astronomy)

Matter distribution in a cubic section of the Universe. The blue fiber structures represent the matter (primarily dark matter) and the empty regions in between represent the cosmic voids.

Cosmic voids are the vast empty spaces between filaments (the largest-scale structures in the Universe ), which contain very few. or no, galaxies. They were first discovered in 1978 during a pioneering study by Stephen Gregory and Laird A. Thompson at the Kitt Peak National Observatory. [1] These zones have less than one-tenth of the average density of matter abundance that is considered typical for the observable Universe. Voids typically have a diameter of 11 to 150 megaparsecs ; particularly large voids, defined by the absence of rich superclusters. are sometimes called "supervoids". Voids located in high-density environments are smaller than voids situated in low-density spaces of the universe. [2]

Voids are believed to have been formed by baryon acoustic oscillations in the Big Bang —collapses of mass followed by implosions of the compressed baryonic matter. Starting from initially small anisotropies due to quantum fluctuations in the early Universe, the anisotropies grew larger in scale over time. Regions of higher density collapsed more rapidly under gravity, eventually resulting in the large-scale, foam-like structure or “cosmic web” of voids and galaxy filaments seen today.

Voids appear to correlate with the observed temperature of the cosmic microwave background (CMB), due to the Sachs–Wolfe effect. Colder regions correlate with voids, whereas hotter regions correlate with filaments, because of gravitational redshifting. As the Sachs–Wolfe effect is only significant if the Universe is dominated by radiation or dark energy. the existence of voids is significant in providing physical evidence for dark energy. [3]

Contents Large-scale structure

The structure of our Universe can be broken down into components that can help describe the characteristics of individual regions of the cosmos. These are the main structural components of the cosmic web:

  • Voids – vast regions with very low cosmic mean densities, usually larger than 10 megaparsecs (Mpc) in diameter.
  • Walls – the regions that contain the typical cosmic mean density of matter abundance. Walls can be further broken down into two smaller structural features:
    • Clusters – highly concentrated zones where walls meet and intersect, adding to the effective size of the local wall.
    • Filaments – the branching arms of walls that can stretch for tens of megaparsecs. [4]

Voids have a mean density less than tenth of the average density of the universe. This serves as a working definition even though there is no single agreed upon definition of what constitutes a void. The matter density value used for describing the cosmic mean density is usually based on a ratio of the number of galaxies per unit volume rather than the total mass of the matter contained in a unit volume. [5]

History and discovery

Cosmic voids as a topic of study in astrophysics began in the mid 1970s when redshift surveys became more popular and led two separate teams of astrophysicists in 1978 to identifying superclusters and voids in the distribution of galaxies and Abell clusters in a large region of space. [6] [7] The new redshift surveys revolutionized the field of astronomy by adding depth to the two-dimensional maps of cosmological structure, which were often densely packed and overlapping, allowing for the first three-dimensional mapping of the Universe. In the redshift surveys, the depth was calculated from the individual redshifts of the galaxies due to the expansion of the Universe according to Hubble's law. [8]

Timeline

A summarized timeline of important events in the field of cosmic voids from its beginning to recent times is listed below:

  • 1961 – Large scale structural features such as "second order clusters", a specific type of supercluster. were brought to the astronomical community's attention. [9]
  • 1978 – The first two papers on the topic of voids in the large scale structure were published referencing voids found in the foreground of the Coma/A1367 clusters. [6] [10]
  • 1981 – Discovery of a large void in the Bootes region of the sky that was nearly 50 h −1 Mpc in diameter (which was later recalculated to be about 34 h −1 Mpc). [11] [12]
  • 1983 – Computer simulations sophisticated enough to provide relatively reliable results of growth and evolution of the large scale structure emerged and yielded insight on key features of the large scale galaxy distribution. [13] [14]
  • 1985 – Details of the supercluster and void structure of the Perseus-Pisces region were surveyed. [15]
  • 1989 – The Center for Astrophysics Redshift Survey revealed that large voids, sharp filaments, and the walls that surround them dominate the large-scale structure of the Universe. [16]
  • 1991 – The Las Campanas Redshift Survey confirmed the abundance of voids in the large-scale structure of the Universe (Kirshner et al. 1991). [17]
  • 1995 – Comparisons of optically selected galaxy surveys indicate that the same voids are found regardless of the sample selection. [18]
  • 2001 – The completed two-degree Field Galaxy Redshift Survey adds a significantly large amount of voids to the database of all known cosmic voids. [19]
  • 2009 – The latest SDSS (Sloan Digital Sky Survey) data combined with previous large scale surveys now provide the most complete view of the detailed structure of cosmic voids. [20] [21]
Methods for finding voids

There exist a number of ways for finding voids with the results of large-scale surveys of the Universe. Of the many different algorithms, virtually all fall into one of three general categories. [22] The first class consists of void finders that try to find empty regions of space based on local galaxy density. [23] The second class are those which try to find voids via the geometrical structures in the dark matter distribution as suggested by the galaxies. [24] The third class is made up of those finders which identify structures dynamically by using gravitationally unstable points in the distribution of dark matter. [25] The three most popular methods through the study of cosmic voids are listed below:

VoidFinder Algorithm

This first class method uses each galaxy in a catalog as its target and then uses the Nearest Neighbor Approximation to calculate the cosmic density in the region contained in a spherical radius determined by the distance to the third closest galaxy. [26] El Ad & Piran introduced this method in 1997 to allow a quick and effective method for standardizing the cataloging of voids. Once the spherical cells are mined from all of the structure data, each cell is expanded until the underdensity returns to average expected wall density values. [27] One of the helpful features of void regions is that their boundaries are very distinct and defined, with a cosmic mean density that starts at 10% in the body and quickly rises to 20% at the edge and then to 100% in the walls directly outside the edges. The remaining walls and overlapping void regions are then gridded into respectively distinct and intertwining zones of filaments, clusters, and near-empty voids. Any overlap of more than 10% with already known voids are considered to be subregions within those known voids. All voids admitted to the catalog had a minimum radius of 10 Mpc in order to ensure all identified voids were not accidentally cataloged due to sampling errors. [26]

ZOBOV (Zone Bordering On Voidness) Algorithm

This particular second class algorithm uses a Voronoi tessellation technique and mock border particles in order to categorize regions based on a high density contrasting border with a very low amount of bias. [28] Neyrinck introduced this algorithm in 2008 with the purpose of introducing a method that did not contain free parameters or presumed shape tessellations. Therefore, this technique can create more accurately shaped and sized void regions. Although this algorithm has some advantages in shape and size, it has been criticized often for sometimes providing loosely defined results. Since it has no free parameters, it mostly finds small and trivial voids although, the algorithm places a statistical significance on each void it finds. A physical significance parameter can be applied in order to reduce the number of trivial voids by including a minimum density to average density ratio of at least 1:5. Subvoids are also identified using this process which raises more philosophical questions on what qualifies as a void. [29]

DIVA (DynamIcal Void Analysis) Algorithm

This third class method is drastically different from the previous two algorithms listed. The most striking aspect is that it requires a different definition of what it means to be a void. Instead of the general notion that a void is a region of space with a low cosmic mean density; a hole in the distribution of galaxies, it defines voids to be regions in which matter is escaping; which corresponds to the Dark Energy equation of state, w. Void centers are then considered to be the maximal source of the displacement field denoted as Sψ. The purpose for this change in definitions was presented by Lavaux and Wandelt in 2009 as a way to yield cosmic voids such that exact analytical calculations can be made on their dynamical and geometrical properties. This allows DIVA to heavily explore the ellipticity of voids and how they evolve in the large-scale structure, subsequently leading to the classification of three distinct types of voids. These three morphological classes are True voids, Pancake voids, and Filament voids. Another notable quality is that even though DIVA also contains selection function bias just as first class methods do, DIVA is devised such that this bias can be precisely calibrated, leading to much more reliable results. Multiple shortfalls of this Lagrangian-Eulerian hybrid approach exist. One example is that the resulting voids from this method are intrinsically different than those found by other methods, which makes an all-data points inclusive comparison between results of differing algorithms very difficult. [22]

Robustness testing

Once an algorithm is presented to find what it deems to be cosmic voids, it is crucial that its findings approximately match what is expected by the current simulations and models of large-scale structure. In order to perform this, the number, size, and proportion as well as other features of voids found by the algorithm are then checked by placing mock data through a Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamic Halo simulation, ΛCDM model, or other reliable simulator. An algorithm is much more robust if its data is in concordance with the results of these simulations for a range of input criterion (Pan et al. 2011). [30]

Significance of voids

Since so much time is being dedicated to the study of voids, the question of why they matter to the scientific community arises. The applications of voids is broad and relatively impressive, ranging from shedding light on the current understanding of dark energy. to refining and constraining cosmological evolution models. Some popular applications are mentioned in detail below:

Dark energy equation of state

Voids act as bubbles in the Universe that are sensitive to background cosmological changes. This means that the evolution of a void's shape is largely in part the result of the expansion of the Universe. Since this acceleration is believed to be caused by dark energy, studying the changes of a void's shape over a period of time can further refine the Quintessence + Cold Dark Matter (QCDM ) model and provide a more accurate dark energy equation of state. [31]

Galactic formation and evolution models

A 43x43x43 megaparsec cube shows the evolution of the large-scale structure over a logarithmic period starting from a redshift of 30 and ending at redshift 0. The model makes it clear to see how the matter-dense regions contract under the collective gravitational force while simultaneously aiding in the expansion of cosmic voids as the matter flees to the walls and filaments.

Cosmic voids contain a mix of galaxies and matter that is slightly different than other regions in the Universe. This unique mix supports the biased galaxy formation picture that is predicted in Gaussian adiabatic cold dark matter models. This phenomena provides an opportunity to modify the morphology-density correlation that holds discrepancies with these voids. Such observations like the morphology-density correlation can help uncover new facets about how galaxies form and evolve on the large scale. [32] On a more local scale, galaxies that reside in voids have differing morphological and spectral properties than those that are located in the walls. One feature that has been found is that voids have been shown to contain a significantly higher fraction of starburst galaxies of young, hot stars when compared to samples of galaxies in walls. [33]

Anomalies in anisotropies

Cold spots in the cosmic microwave background. such as the WMAP cold spot found by Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe. could possibly be explained by an extremely large cosmic void that has a radius of

120 Mpc, as long as the late integrated Sachs-Wolfe effect was accounted for in the possible solution. Anomalies in CMB screenings are now being potentially explained through the existence of large voids located down the line-of-sight in which the cold spot[s] lie. [34]

CMB screening of the Universe.

Accelerating expansion of the Universe

Although dark energy is currently the most popular explanation for the acceleration in the expansion of the Universe. another theory elaborates on the possibility of our galaxy being part of a very large, not-so-underdense, cosmic void. According to this theory, such an environment could naively lead to the demand for dark energy to solve the problem with the observed acceleration. As more data has been released on this topic the chances of it being a realistic solution in place of the current ΛCDM interpretation has been largely diminished but not all together abandoned. [35]

Gravitational theories

Void regions often seem to adhere to cosmological parameters which differ from those of the known universe. It is because of this unique feature that cosmic voids make for great laboratories to study the effects that gravitational clustering and growth rates have on local galaxies and structure when the cosmological parameters have different values from the outside universe. Due to the observation that larger voids predominately remain in a linear regime possessing a great deal of spherical symmetry in an underdense environment, testing models for voids can be performed with very high accuracy. The cosmological parameters that differ in these voids are Ωm. ΩΛ. and H0. [36]

See also References External links

Source:

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