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Available online 19 June 2013.Highlights
Importance of contemporary environmental and economic challenges for small island developing states (SIDS).
Implications for sustainable development strategies and initiatives worldwide.
Strategic and urgent implications for education for sustainable development (ESD) in SIDS.
SIDS have pioneered innovative approaches to ESD.
The international community has much to learn from the SIDS experience.Abstract
Climate change and global recession have especially dramatic implications for small island developing states (SIDS). It is argued that such issues warrant urgent attention from researchers, policy-makers and the international development community. The existing literature relating to sustainable development in SIDS is limited in scope and rarely addresses the educational implications of sustainable development in significant depth. This paper draws upon recent theoretically and empirically grounded research carried out in collaboration with colleagues working within small states worldwide. The analysis examines how SIDS are responding to these contemporary global challenges, how the international community is engaging with such developments, and how education research and development co-operation might play more effective roles in advancing sustainable development in small state contexts. The paper concludes by exploring ways in which the wider international community may learn from the small states experience.Keywords
Michael Crossley is Professor of Comparative and International Education, Director of the Research Centre for International and Comparative Studies at the Graduate School of Education, and Director of the Education in Small States Research Group (www.smallstates.net ), University of Bristol, UK. Professor Crossley is a former Editor of the journal Comparative Education and former Chair of the British Association for International and Comparative Education (BAICE). Before moving to the University of Bristol he was Associate Dean for Planning and Research at the University of Papua New Guinea, and is currently Adjunct Professor of Education at The University of the South Pacific. He is Academician, AcSS, of the British Academy of Social Sciences.
Terra Sprague is a Research Fellow at the Research Centre for International and Comparative Studies (ICS) and member of the Education in Small States research group (www.smallstates.net ) at the University of Bristol Graduate School of Education, UK. She has worked as an educational consultant and has professional experience in teacher training and special education in the small state of Armenia. Her work is in the areas of comparative research, educational development, policy in small states, and educational assessment. Terra is Convenor of the UKFIET International Conference on Education and Development and Managing Editor of the UKFIET Community of Practice (www.ukfiet.org/cop ).
Corresponding author. Tel. +44 0117 331 4490.
Copyright © 2013 Published by Elsevier Ltd.Citing articles ( )
A BRIEF HISTORY OF THE BPOA REVIEW PROCESS: The vulnerability of islands and coastal areas was recognized by the 44th session of the UN General Assembly in 1989, when it passed resolution 44/206 on the possible adverse effects of sea-level rise on islands and coastal areas, particularly low-lying coastal areas. The UN Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) held in June 1992, in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, brought the special case of such areas to international attention when it adopted Agenda 21, a programme of action for sustainable development. Chapter 17 of Agenda 21 on the protection of oceans, all kinds of seas, and coastal areas included a programme area on the sustainable development of small islands. Agenda 21 also called for convening a global conference on the sustainable development of SIDS.
GLOBAL CONFERENCE ON THE SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT OF SIDS: Established by UN General Assembly resolution 47/189, the UN Global Conference on the Sustainable Development of SIDS was held in Bridgetown, Barbados, from 25 April to 6 May 1994. Some 125 States and territories participated in the conference, 46 of which were small island developing States and territories. The Conference adopted the Barbados Programme of Action on the Sustainable Development of SIDS (BPOA), a 14-point programme that identifies priority areas and indicates specific actions necessary for addressing the special challenges faced by SIDS. The priority areas include: climate change and sea-level rise, natural and environmental disasters, management of wastes, coastal and marine resources, freshwater resources, land resources, energy resources, tourism resources, biodiversity resources, national institutions and administrative capacity, regional institutions and technical cooperation, transport and communication, science and technology, and human resource development. The BPOA further identified several cross-sectoral areas that required attention: capacity building; institutional development at the national, regional and international levels; cooperation in the transfer of environmentally sound technologies; trade and economic diversification; and finance. The Conference also adopted the Barbados Declaration, a statement of political will underpinning the agreements contained in the BPOA. The Commission on Sustainable Development (CSD) was given the responsibility to follow up on the implementation of the BPOA.
UNGASS-19: Five years after UNCED in June 1997, the 19th Special Session of the UN General Assembly (UNGASS-19) addressed SIDS issues as part of its general theme to �Review and Appraise the Implementation of Agenda 21.� In that context, the Special Session requested that the CSD at its sixth session in 1998 undertake a review of all the outstanding chapters and issues of the BPOA. Delegates also decided that a two-day special session of the General Assembly would be held in 1999 to conduct a full review of the implementation of the BPOA, and requested the CSD to serve as the preparatory committee for the Special Session.
UNGASS-22: In September 1999, five years following the Barbados Conference, the 22nd Special Session of the UN General Assembly (UNGASS-22) undertook a comprehensive review and appraisal of the implementation of the BPOA. The Special Session adopted the �State of Progress and Initiatives for the Future Implementation of the Programme of Action for the Sustainable Development of SIDS,� which identified six problem areas in need of urgent attention: climate change, natural and environmental disasters and climate variability, freshwater resources, coastal and marine resources, energy, and tourism. In addition to these priority areas, the Special Session highlighted the need to focus on means of implementation through: sustainable development strategies, capacity building, resource mobilization and finance, globalization and trade liberalization, transfer of environmentally sound technology, a vulnerability index, information management through strengthening the SIDS Network, and international cooperation and partnership. UNGASS-22 also adopted a declaration in which Member States, inter alia. reaffirmed the principles of and their commitment to sustainable development embodied in Agenda 21, the Barbados Declaration and the BPOA.
MILLENNIUM SUMMIT: In 2000, at the UN Millennium Summit in New York, world leaders adopted the UN Millennium Declaration (General Assembly resolution 55/2) and in doing so, resolved to address the special needs of SIDS, by implementing the BPOA and the outcome of UNGASS-22 rapidly and in full.
WSSD: The World Summit on Sustainable Development (WSSD) convened from 26 August to 4 September 2002, in Johannesburg, South Africa. The Summit negotiated and adopted two main documents: the Johannesburg Declaration on Sustainable Development and the Johannesburg Plan of Implementation (JPOI). The WSSD reaffirmed the special case of SIDS, and dedicated a chapter of the JPOI to the sustainable development of SIDS, which identified a set of priority actions, called for a full and comprehensive review of the BPOA in 2004, and requested the General Assembly at its 57th session to consider convening an international meeting on the sustainable development of SIDS.
Non-negotiated partnerships/initiatives for sustainable development, also known as Type II partnerships/initiatives, proved to be an important outcome of the WSSD. Since the WSSD, over 260 such partnerships have been launched, 18 of which focus on addressing the challenges facing small islands.
UNGA-57: In December 2002, the 57th session of the UN General Assembly (UNGA-57) adopted resolution 57/262, which decided to convene an international meeting in 2004 to undertake a full and comprehensive review of the implementation of the BPOA, and welcomed the offer of the Government of Mauritius to host the meeting. The General Assembly also decided that the review should seek a renewed political commitment by all countries to, and focus on, practical and pragmatic actions for the further implementation of the BPOA, including through the mobilization of resources and assistance for SIDS. The resolution further decided to convene regional preparatory meetings and an inter-regional preparatory meeting in order to undertake the review of the BPOA at the national, subregional and regional levels, and invited the CSD at its 11th session (CSD-11) to consider its role in the review process. The resolution also requested strengthening the SIDS Unit within the UN Division for Sustainable Development to enable it to assist in preparations for the review process.
CSD-11: During CSD-11, which convened in New York from 28 April to 9 May 2003, the Commission decided to undertake a three-day preparatory meeting during CSD-12 for an in-depth assessment and appraisal of the implementation of the BPOA, and finalize the preparations for the International Meeting (IM), including its agenda. The CSD further decided to invite the international donor and development communities, and international organizations to provide information on their activities in support of the BPOA�s implementation, and specified the dates and venues of the regional and inter-regional preparatory meetings.
REGIONAL PREPARATORY MEETINGS: From August to October 2003, three regional preparatory meetings were held for the: Pacific SIDS (4-8 August, Apia, Samoa); Atlantic, Indian Ocean, Mediterranean and South China Sea (AIMS) SIDS (1-5 September, Praia, Cape Verde); and the Caribbean SIDS (6-10 October, Port of Spain, Trinidad and Tobago). Each of these meetings finalized regional positions, which were presented as Regional Synthesis Reports during the inter-regional preparatory meeting in the Bahamas in January 2004.
EXPERT MEETINGS: In preparation for the inter-regional meeting, a series of four expert meetings were convened from July to December 2003. These meetings addressed: capacity building for renewable energy and energy efficiency; vulnerability of SIDS and enhancing resilience; waste management; and capacity building for sustainable development. The reports of these meetings together with the Regional Synthesis Reports comprised the background documents for the inter-regional meeting.
UNGA-58: In December 2003, the 58th session of the UN General Assembly (UNGA-58), in resolution 58/213, decided to convene the IM from 30 August to 3 September 2004, which would include a high-level segment to undertake a full and comprehensive review of the implementation of the BPOA. The General Assembly also decided to hold, if deemed necessary by an open-ended preparatory meeting and funded from voluntary resources, two days of informal consultations in Mauritius, on 28 and 29 August 2004, to facilitate the effective preparation for the IM.
APPOINTMENT OF THE SECRETARY-GENERAL OF THE INTERNATIONAL MEETING: In December 2003, UN Under-Secretary-General Anwarul Chowdhury was appointed the Secretary-General of the International Meeting. Chowdhury is also the UN High Representative for the Least Developed Countries (LDCs), Landlocked Developing Countries and SIDS.
INTER-REGIONAL SIDS PREPARATORY MEETING: The Inter-regional Preparatory Meeting for the Ten-year Review of the Programme of Action for the Sustainable Development of SIDS took place from 26-30 January 2004, in Nassau, the Bahamas. At the conclusion of the meeting, the SIDS adopted the Nassau Declaration and the Alliance of Small Island States (AOSIS) Strategy Paper for the Further Implementation of the BPOA. The AOSIS Strategy Paper was forwarded to the G-77/China for consideration in advance of the SIDS preparatory meeting. The Paper contains chapters on the priority areas of the BPOA and identifies new and emerging issues, including graduation of SIDS least developed countries (LDCs), trade, health and culture.
G-77/CHINA�S LETTER TO THE UN SECRETARY-GENERAL: In a letter transmitted to the UN Secretary-General on 26 March 2004 (E/CN.17/2004/12), the G-77/China indicated its endorsement of the AOSIS Strategy Paper and proposed to use it as a basis for negotiation for the 10-year review of the BPOA.
INFORMAL INFORMALS: Facilitated by New Zealand�s Ambasador to the UN, Don MacKay, informal informals on matters related to the SIDS preparatory meeting took place on 24 March and 8 April 2004. During the consultations, delegates expressed views on and conducted an informal reading of the Strategy Document for the Further Implementation of the BPOA.
PREPARATORY MEETING FOR THE INTERNATIONAL MEETING: The Preparatory Meeting for the International Meeting on the Ten-year Review of the Programme of Action for the Sustainable Development of SIDS took place from 14-16 April 2004, at UN headquarters in New York. The meeting was held during the 12th session of the Commission on Sustainable Development, which was tasked to undertake the three-day preparatory meeting for the International Meeting. During the three days, delegates conducted a first reading of the Strategy Document on the Further Implementation of the Barbados Programme of Action, adopted at the inter-regional preparatory meeting held in the Bahamas in January 2004. At the conclusion of the preparatory meeting, delegates decided to use a compilation text as the basis for further intersessional informal informals. Delegates also adopted draft decisions on the provisional agenda of and the accreditation of NGOs to the International Meeting. CSD-12 also considered preparations for the International Meeting at its high-level segment on Friday, 30 April.
INFORMAL INFORMAL CONSULTATIONS IN PREPARATION FOR THE INTERNATIONAL MEETING: Two round of informal informal consultations were held from 17-19 May and 7, 8 and 11 October 2004 at UN headquarters in New York to advance negotiations on the Strategy for the further implementation of the BPOA. At the conclusion of the second round of informals, delegates:resolved chapters on: Natural and Environment Disasters, Energy Resources, Tourism Resources, Transport and Communication, Science and Technology, Sustainable Capacity Development and Education for Sustainable Development, Sustainable Production and Consumption, Health, Knowledge Management and Information for Decision Making, and Culture;
deferred to the International Meeting discussions on Climate Change and Sea-Level Rise.
UNGA-59: The 59th session of the UN General Assembly is expected to adopt a resolution on the Further Implementation of the Programme of Action for the Sustainable Development of SIDS. In the text that has been provisionally agreed, the General Assembly decides to hold two days of informal consultations on 8 and 9 January to facilitate preparations for the International Meeting.
SIGNING OF HOST COUNTRY AGREEMENT: On 30 November in New York, Mauritian Ambassador Jagdish Koonjul and the Secretary-General of the Mauritius International Meeting, UN Under-Secretary-General Anwarul Chowdhury, signed the official agreement to hold the small island conference from 10-14 January in Mauritius.
Small island developing states and territories face common challenges in several areas including climate change, natural disasters, tourism, management of wastes, land resources and science and technology, all identified in the Barbados Programme of Action endorsed by 111 governments in 1994. In these areas, UNICEF, in partnership with others, focuses on child survival, education, child protection, adolescent development and HIV/AIDS. This publication, available in PDF format only, provides a regional mapping of the situation of children in small island developing states and territories, including key indicators of their well-being, and outlines recent UNICEF-supported actions towards their sustainable development.
Author: UNICEF Price: Free No. of pages: 34 Publication date: 2004 Publisher: UNICEF ISBN: 92-806-3854-8
Available language versions
Small Island Developing States
Small Island Developing States (SIDS) are low-lying coastal countries that tend to share similar sustainable development challenges, including small but growing populations, limited resources, remoteness, susceptibility to natural disasters. vulnerability to external shocks, excessive dependence on international trade. and fragile environments. Their growth and development is also held back by high communication, energy and transportation costs, irregular international transport volumes, disproportionately expensive public administration and infrastructure due to their small size, and little to no opportunity to create economies of scale.
The SIDS were first recognized as a distinct group of developing countries at the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development in June 1992. The Barbados Programme of Action was produced in 1994 to assist the SIDS in their sustainable development efforts. The United Nations Office of the High Representative for the Least Developed Countries, Landlocked Developing Countries and Small Island Developing States represents this group of states.
About SIDS, United Nations Office of the High Representative for the Least Developed Countries, Landlocked Developing Countries and Small Island Developing States
List of SIDS United Nations, Office of the High Representative for the Least Developed Countries, Landlocked Developing Countries and Small Island Developing States
AOSIS Members, Alliance of Small Island States
SIDS Network Small Islands Development States Network
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