Usually, when we say “American slavery” or the “American slave trade,” we mean the American colonies or, later, the United States. But as we discussed in Episode 2 of Slate ’s History of American Slavery Academy. relative to the entire slave trade, North America was a bit player. From the trade’s beginning in the 16 th century to its conclusion in the 19 th. slave merchants brought the vast majority of enslaved Africans to two places: the Caribbean and Brazil. Of the more than 10 million enslaved Africans to eventually reach the Western Hemisphere, just 388,747—less than 4 percent of the total—came to North America. This was dwarfed by the 1.3 million brought to Spanish Central America, the 4 million brought to British, French, Dutch, and Danish holdings in the Caribbean, and the 4.8 million brought to Brazil.
This interactive, designed and built by Slate ’s Andrew Kahn, gives you a sense of the scale of the trans-Atlantic slave trade across time, as well as the flow of transport and eventual destinations. The dots—which represent individual slave ships—also correspond to the size of each voyage. The larger the dot, the more enslaved people on board. And if you pause the map and click on a dot, you’ll learn about the ship’s flag—was it British? Portuguese? French?—its origin point, its destination, and its history in the slave trade. The interactive animates more than 20,000 voyages cataloged in the Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade Database. (We excluded voyages for which there is incomplete or vague information in the database.) The graph at the bottom accumulates statistics based on the raw data used in the interactive and, again, only represents a portion of the actual slave trade—about one-half of the number of enslaved Africans who actually were transported away from the continent.
Inside the Slave Ship
History of American Slavery, Ep 2: The Atlantic slave trade during its heyday and the remarkable life of Olaudah Equiano.
There are a few trends worth noting. As the first European states with a major presence in the New World, Portugal and Spain dominate the opening century of the trans-Atlantic slave trade, sending hundreds of thousands of enslaved people to their holdings in Central and South America and the Caribbean. The Portuguese role doesn’t wane and increases through the 17 th. 18 th. and 19 th centuries, as Portugal brings millions of enslaved Africans to the Americas.
In the 1700s, however, Spanish transport diminishes and is replaced (and exceeded) by British, French, Dutch, and—by the end of the century—American activity. This hundred years—from approximately 1725 to 1825—is also the high-water mark of the slave trade, as Europeans send more than 7.2 million people to forced labor, disease, and death in the New World. For a time during this period, British transport even exceeds Portugal’s.
In the final decades of the trans-Atlantic slave trade, Portugal reclaims its status as the leading slavers, sending 1.3 million people to the Western Hemisphere, and mostly to Brazil. Spain also returns as a leading nation in the slave trade, sending 400,000 to the West. The rest of the European nations, by contrast, have largely ended their roles in the trade.
Slate Academy: The History of American Slavery
Enroll now in a different kind of summer school. Slate’s Jamelle Bouie, Rebecca Onion, and our nation’s leading historians on our foundational institution. Included in your Slate Plus membership!
By the conclusion of the trans-Atlantic slave trade at the end of the 19 th century, Europeans had enslaved and transported more than 12.5 million Africans. At least 2 million, historians estimate, didn’t survive the journey. —Jamelle Bouie
Correction, June 30, 2015: The interactive originally displayed incorrect locations for Quilimane (also spelled Quelimane), Malembo, and Cardenas. They are in Mozambique, Angola, and Cuba, respectively, not Sudan and Spain. Furthermore, the map had located a port called “Spanish Americas” in eastern North America. The revised map does not show this port or voyages to it.
Correction, June 25, 2015:The interactive originally displayed incorrect locations for St. Vincent and Zion Hill. They are in the Caribbean, not in the U.S. and Canada, respectively.
Andrew Kahn is Slate ’s assistant interactives editor. Follow him on Twitter .
46. Shared Histories of Bondage.
Slavery, the practice of owning human beings, is a nearly universal historical phenomenon that reached its global peak during the eighteenth century and remains present to this day. However, slavery has taken many different forms in different regions: plantation slavery, domestic slavery, concubinage, military slavery and the like, often predicated on difference of religion or race. In this episode, we discuss slavery as practiced in different regions of the world from the Atlantic to the Middle East to the Black Sea in a comparative perspective.
Elena Abbott is a PhD student at Georgetown University focusing on the history of the Atlantic during the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries
Soha El Achi is a PhD student studying slavery and French colonialism in North Africa at Georgetown University
Michael Połczyński is a PhD student studying Ottoman and Polish history at Georgetown University ( see academia.edu )
Chris Gratien is a PhD student studying the history of the modern Middle East at Georgetown University ( see academia.edu )
Note for the listener: This podcast is not primarily a work of primary source research. It is a synthesis of publicly available information and draws extensively from the following works below, which are also mentioned during the course of the episode. For the purposes of academic citation. we encourage you to consult these works.
Johnson, Walter. "On Agency." Journal of Social History. Vol. 37, No. 1, Special Issue (Autumn, 2003), pp. 113-124
Hall, Gwendolyn Midlo. Slavery and African Ethnicities in the Americas: Restoring the Links. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2005.
Drescher, Seymour. Abolition: A History of Slavery and Antislavery. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2009.
Eltis, David. The Rise of African Slavery in the Americas. Cambridge, U.K. ; New York: Cambridge University Press, 2000.
Smallwood, Stephanie E. Saltwater Slavery: A Middle Passage from Africa to American Diaspora. Cambridge, Mass: Harvard University Press, 2007.
Clarence Smith, W. G. Islam and the Abolition of Slavery. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2006.
Cordell, Dennis. “No Liberty, Not Much Equality, and Very Little Fraternity: The Mirage of Manumission in the Algerian Sahara in the Second Half of the Nineteenth Century,” in Slavery and Colonial Rule in Africa, ed. Suzane Miers and Martin Klein.
Erdem, Y Hakan. Slavery in the Ottoman Empire and its Demise, 1800-1909. London: Macmillan Press LTD, 1996.
Troutt Powell, Eve M. A Different Shade of Colonialism: Egypt, Great Britain, and the Mastery of the Sudan. University of California Press, 2003.
David, Geza and Pá Fodor. Ransom Slavery Along the Ottoman Borders. Early Fifteenth-Early Eighteenth Centuries. Ottoman Empire and its Heritage ; v. 37. Vol. 37. Leiden ;Boston: Brill, 2007.
Fisher, Alan. A Precarious Balance. Conflict, Trade, and Diplomacy on the Russian-Ottoman Frontier. Istanbul: Isis Press, 1999.
Gertwagen, R. "Halil Inalcik; Victor Ostapchuk (Volume Ed.), Sources and Studies on the Ottoman Black Sea. Volume I: The Customs Register of Caffa, 1487-1490." NORTHERN MARINER 8, no. 3 (1998): 105.
Hellie, Richard. Slavery in Russia. 1450 - 1725. Chicago [u.a.]: Univ.Pr. 1982.
Kolodziejczyk, Dariusz. "Slave Hunting and Slave Redemption as a Business Enterprise: The Northern Black Sea Region in the Sixteenth to Seventeenth Centuries." Oriente Moderno. 86, no. 1 (2006): 149.
Ottoman History Podcast is a noncommerical website intended for educational use. Anyone is welcome to use and reproduce our content with proper attribution under the terms of noncommercial fair use within the classroom setting or on other educational websites. All third-party content is used under the terms of fair use. Our page and podcasts contain no advertising and our website receives no revenue. Commercial use of our material is strictly prohibited. as it violates not only our noncommercial commitment but also the rights of third-party content owners that appear on our site under the terms of noncommercial fair use for educational purposes.
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Javier Lavina, Michael Zeuske (Eds.)
The Second Slavery
Mass Slaveries and Modernity in the Americas and in the Atlantic Basin
Reihe. Sklaverei und Postemanzipation/ Slavery and Postemancipation/Esclavitud y postemancipación
Bd. 6, 2014, 208 S. 29.90 EUR, 29.90 CHF, br. ISBN 978-3-643-90367-9
"Slavery throughout the capitalist world-economy expands. The old zones in one way or another reach their limits and the new zones break through: to become part of the new division of labor (in the 19th century). In that sense the Second Slavery would encompass both decline and renewal of slaveries. I never intended the idea to apply just to Cuba, Brazil, and the cotton South as some people seem to take it. For me it is a concept of world economy and Cuba, Brazil, and the South are the obvious examples of those zones that break through. They permit us to think about slavery in a more dynamic way, but there is much more work to be done. From this perspective I would be more inclined to include Reunion, Mauritius and some parts of India, Ceylon and Java as well as British Guiana, than the older French and British Caribbean islands."
- Dale Tomich (Binghamton University, New York
(c) LIT Verlag Berlin-M�nster-Wien-Zürich-London - Impressum/Kontakt
AIRES a.k.a. LAN Colombia. previously Aerovías de Integración Regional S.A. is a Colombian airline. It is the second largest air carrier in Colombia.Person
Aires a.k.a. Christina Aguilar is of Filipino-Thai descent and is one of Thailand's most popular singers. With her debut album "Ninja", Aguilar was the first female artist in Thailand to sell over a million copies. Following it with several albums, Thais named her as the Thai "Dancing Queen". She is considered a "gay idol" of the Thai gay community. Christina is often mistaken for American pop star Christina Aguilera.Phrases with Aires
Phrases ending with the word Aires :
Other phrases containing the word Aires :Printed dictionaries and other books with definitions for Aires
Click on a title to look inside that book (if available):World Film Locations: Buenos Aires (2014)
by Michael Pigott, Santiago Oyarzabel
Plata, Buenos Aires is a city of important contrasts – often more so than its own people, the porteños, wish to acknowledge .Let's Go Buenos Aires 1st Edition (2008)
As many will explain, Buenos Aires is a cosmopolitan city, and that cosmopolitanism plays out in ways both delicious and downright confusing. lt's a city where high-heeled fashionistas and broken down garbage drivers inhabit the same.A Ritual of the Monkey (2010)
by Richard Sole
With over twelve million inhabitants, Buenos Aires is a megalopolis. It is the most elegant and busiest city in South America and is in some ways the essence of Argentine diversity. With a high beauty quotient among its people, city residents.The Second Slavery (2014)
Mass Slaveries and Modernity in the Americas and in the Atlantic Basin by Javier Lavina, Michael Zeuske
Beyond that, Memorial de Aires is an unwieldy novel, which tells at least three stories at the same time. It focuses on two generations of characters and calls attention, painfully, to the contrasts between what lies ahead for each group.Esau and Jacob (2000)
by Joaquim Maria Machado de Assis
Aires is an illusionist intent on undoing illusions. To stop time.Reading Borges after Benjamin (2008)
Allegory, Afterlife, and the Writing of History by Kate Jenckes
Melancholic Fervor Borges's Buenos Aires is a world that is traversed by shadows and disturbances, wounds and edges. The city is always on the brink of dissolution or loss, and remembrance and representation are continually threatened by.Order, Family, and Community in Buenos Aires, 1810-1860 (1988)
by Mark D. Szuchman
In fact, Buenos Aires is a particularly useful locus to study social control in Latin America within a.Jorge Luis Borges (2006)
by Jason Wilson
Buenos Aires is a city linked to the pickaxe, for it has turned its past into building rubble to rebuild according to the latest fashions. Borges's birthplace was typically colonial. A single – storey house with a high façade, a tall entrance hall.The Campaign (1991)
by Carlos Fuentes
Buenos Aires is a long way off. Colonial oppression is right at hand. We have to keep up the guerrilla war. The royalist forces are here, and so are we. You and yours, Bustos, should come, help out, give speeches. But don't lose sight of reality.Jaguar's Shadow (2014)
Searching for a Mythic Cat by Richard Mahler
BUENOS AIRES IS AN UNLIKELY name for the place. It translates as “pleasant breezes” and links in the public mind to the cosmopolitan capital of Argentina, famous for its tango and beefsteak. By coincidence, that waterfront city happens to.Encyclopedia of Comedy (1899)
For Professional Entertainers, Social Clubs, Comedians, Lodges and All who are in Search of Humorous Literature. by James Melville JansonA Colonial Lexicon (1999)
Of Birth Ritual, Medicalization, and Mobility in the Congo by Nancy Rose Hunt
Ministère des A√aires Etrangères et de Commerce Extérieur. Archives Africaines (aa). Brussels. Fonds: A√aires Indigènes (ai); Hygiène (h); foreami ( for); and Rapports Annuels, Congo Belge (ra/cb). Musée Royal de l'Afrique Centrale (mrac).An Etymological Dictionary of the Scottish Language (1818)
by John Jamieson
LEUER AIRES ,s.;>í. Armoriai bearings. Complaynt S. LEVERE', LEVERA Y, s. 1.Dictionary of Military Terms (2009)
by U.S. Department of Defense
AI AIA AIASA AIC AICF/USA AIDS AIF AIFA AIG AIIRS AIK AIM AIM-7 AIM-9 AIM-54A AIMD AIQC AIRBAT AIRCENT AIRES Air Force working capital fund Air Force Weather Information Network Deputy Chief of Staff for Plans and Operations.Encyclopedia of World Poetry (2015)
by R. Victoria Arana
Asa resultof this evergrowing prominence, hewas appointeddirector ofthe NationalLibrary in 1955 and,a year later, professorofEnglish literature atthe University ofBuenos Aires. It was alsoat thispoint that Borges'schronically poor eyesight.The Routledge Encyclopedia of Jewish Writers of the Twentieth Century (2004)
Govi - Language Of The Heart. - Hilton Boenos Aires
Language Of Heart de Govi.Quotes about Aires
On July 18, we will mark the 12th anniversary of the senseless loss of 85 lives in the bombing of the Jewish Cultural Center in Buenos Aires. Argentina. (Tom Lantos )
more quotes about aires .
The value of this 5-letter word is 5 points, but it's not an accepted word in the Official Scrabble Players Dictionary.Anagrams of A I R E S
What do you get if you rearrange the letters?Semordnilap
What do you get if you reverse the order of the letters?Other anagrams
What do you get if you rearrange the letters in other ways?
By Alistair Boddy-Evans. African History Expert
Updated July 23, 2016.
Whether slavery existed within sub-Saharan African societies before the arrival of Europeans is a hotly contested point between Afrocentric and Eurocentric academics. What is certain is that Africans were subjected to several forms of slavery over the centuries, including chattel slavery under both the Muslims with the trans-Saharan slave trade, and Europeans through the trans-Atlantic slave trade .
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Even after the abolition of the slave trade in Africa, Colonial powers used forced labor – such as in King Leopold's Congo Free State (which was operated as a massive labor camp) or as libertos on the Portuguese plantations of Cape Verde or San Tome.What forms of slavery were experienced by Africans?
It can be disputed that all of the following qualify as slavery – the United Nations deems slavery to be "the status or condition of a person over whom any or all of the powers attaching to the right of ownership are exercised" and slave as "a person in such condition or status" 1 .Chattel Slavery
Chattel slaves are property and can be traded as such. They have no rights, are expected to perform labor (and sexual favors) at the command of a slave master. This is the form of slavery which was carried out in the Americas as a result of the trans-Atlantic slave trade .
There are reports that chattel slavery still exists in Islamic North Africa, in such countries as Mauritania and Sudan (despite both countries being participants in the 1956 UN slavery convention). One example is that of Francis Bok, who was taken into bondage during a raid on his village in southern Sudan in 1986 at the age of seven, and spent ten years as a chattel slave in the north of Sudan before escaping.
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The Sudanese government denies the continued existence of slavery in its country.Debt Bondage
Debt bondage, bonded labor, or peonage, involves the use of people as collateral against debt. Labor is provided by the person who owes the debt, or a relative (typically a child). It was unusual for a bonded laborer to escape their debt, since further costs would accrue during the period of bondage (food, clothing, shelter), and it was not unknown for the debt to be inherited across several generations.
In the Americas, peonage was extended to include criminal peonage, where prisoners sentenced to hard labor were 'farmed out' to private or governmental groups.
Africa has it's own unique version of debt bondage: pawnship. Afrocentric academics claim that this was a much milder form of debt bondage compared to that experienced elsewhere, since it would occur on a family or community basis where social ties existed between debtor and creditor.Forced Labor
Otherwise known as 'unfree' labor. Forced labor, as the name implies, was based on the threat of violence against the laborer (or their family). Laborers contracted for a specific period would find themselves unable to escape enforced servitude. This was used to an overwhelming extent in King Leopold's Congo Free State and on Portuguese plantations of Cape Verde and San Tome.Serfdom
A term usually restricted to medieval Europe in which a tenant farmer was bound to a section of land and was thus under the control of a landlord. The serf achieved subsistence through the cultivation of their lord's land and was liable to provide other services, such as working on other sections of land or joining a war-band. A serf was tied to the land, and could not leave without his lord's permission. A serf also required permission to marry, to sell goods, or to change their occupation. Any legal redress lay with the lord.
Although this is considered a European condition, the circumstances of servitude are not unlike those experienced under several African kingdoms, such as that of the Zulu in the early nineteenth century.
1 From the Supplementary Convention on the Abolition of Slavery, the Slave Trade, and Institutions and Practices Similar to Slavery. as adopted by a Conference of Plenipotentiaries convened by Economic and Social Council resolution 608(XXI) of 30 April 1956 and done at Geneva on 7 September 1956.What Everyone Should Know About African Slavery
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