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The Jungle - Isbn:9781512405415

Category: Fiction

  • Book Title: The Jungle
  • ISBN 13: 9781512405415
  • ISBN 10: 1512405418
  • Author: Upton Sinclair
  • Category: Fiction
  • Category (general): Fiction
  • Publisher: First Avenue Editions
  • Format & Number of pages: 442 pages, book
  • Synopsis:

Another description

The Jungle - ISBN:9781512405415

Could Terrorists Attack Dallas Love Field?
Dallas Author Explores Subject in New Novel

(Dallas, Texas)—Could terrorists exploit security holes at
Dallas Love Field and hijack a plane? Could a trail of false
clues lead an American government to attack the wrong
enemy? Both of these things happen in Flames in the Jungle,
a new action novel by Texas author John Cunyus.

In Flames in the Jungle, narco-terrorists launch an attack at
Love Field and hijack a plane, leaving behind a bomb and a
trail of false clues. As the hostages disappear into the
Colombian jungle, governments and guerrillas alike try to find
and rescue them. While the drama unfolds in the jungle, an
impatient American government itches to strike back at old
enemies – the leftist government of Venezuela and its
insurgent allies in Colombia.

In the words of one of the terrorists in Flames in the Jungle,
“You can’t hijack an American plane from inside anymore.
Too much scrutiny. But in a smaller airport, you could storm a
plane from outside if you have the right training and

John Cunyus is a graduate of Rice and TCU. He spent twenty
years as a minister in the Christian Church (Disciples of
Christ), before settling down to write Flames in the Jungle.
Cunyus is married to his own beautiful Colombian, Rocio, and
has traveled extensively in the places he describes.

“My family and I have flown out of Love Field so often,” he
says. “I see security gaps there each time I go inside. I figure
that if I see them, others probably see them, too. That’s a
centerpiece of the novel.”

Still, could somebody really succeed in bombing an airport and
hijacking a local plane? “I’d rather explore the possibility in a
novel,” Cunyus says, “than face the reality of it. But yes, it is a
possibility. Maybe this book will help close some of the gaps.”

Flames in the Jungle weaves “a vivid tapestry of intrigue,
passion, and terror. guaranteed to keep readers on the
edge of their seats.”

About Flames in the Jungle. Flames in the Jungle stretches
from the walls of colonial Cartagena, Colombia, to modern
Dallas, before returning to the unforgiving Colombian jungle.
Flames in the Jungle, ISBN #0-595-40800-1, was published in
September, 2006, by iUniverse. It is available in paperback for
$12.95 from iUniverse at 1.800.AUTHORS, as well as online at
Amazon.com and this website.




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THE JUNGLE: definition of THE JUNGLE and synonyms of THE JUNGLE (English)

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definition - THE JUNGLE The Jungle

February 28, 1906

The Jungle is a 1906 novel written by American journalist. muckraker. socialist. and politician Upton Sinclair (1878-1968). [ 1 ] [ 2 ] Sinclair wrote the novel with the intent to portray the lives of immigrants in the United States. Margaret Sanger. a supporter of Sinclair, said that in writing the novel, "Upton Sinclair was utilizing his gift for vivid expression and righteous wrath in trying to correct social abuses by the indirect but highly effective method of story telling." [ 3 ] However, readers were more concerned with the large portion of the book pertaining to the bad practices and corruption of the American meatpacking industry during the early 20th century, and the book is now often interpreted and taught as a journalist's account of the poor working conditions in the industry. The novel depicts, in harsh tones, poverty. the absence of social programs, unpleasant living and working conditions, and the hopelessness prevalent among the working class, which is contrasted with the deeply-rooted corruption on the part of those in power. Sinclair's observations of the state of turn-of-the-twentieth-century labor were placed front and center for the American public to see, suggesting that something needed to be changed to get rid of American wage slavery. [ 4 ] A review by Jack London called it, "the Uncle Tom's Cabin of wage slavery." [ 5 ]

Conditions in the USA during the time The Jungle was written were very different from today. Social Darwinism was the philosophy that represented most Americans' attitudes. It applied such concepts as survival of the fittest, "buyer beware," and minimal regulation (especially of factory conditions and workers rights) to the economy. Sinclair was one of the muckrackers, or journalists who exposed corruption in government and business. [ 6 ]

The novel was first published in serial form in 1905 in the socialist newspaper Appeal to Reason between February 25, 1905 and November 4, 1905. It was based on undercover work done in 1904: Sinclair spent seven weeks gathering information while working incognito in the meatpacking plants of the Chicago stockyards at the behest of the magazine's publishers. [ 7 ] He then started looking for a publisher who would be willing to print his work in book form. However, most refused. An employee at Macmillan stated "I advise without hesitation and unreservedly against the publication of this book which is gloom and horror unrelieved. One feels that what is at the bottom of his fierceness is not nearly so much desire to help the poor as hatred of the rich." [ 8 ] After five rejections by publishers who found it too shocking for publication, he funded the first printing himself. [ 7 ] A shortened version of the novel was published by Doubleday, Page & Company on February 28, 1906 and has been in print ever since. The book was dedicated, by Sinclair, "To the Workingmen of America." [ 9 ]

Some of the characters in the novel were partially based on Sinclair's family. For example Ona Lukoszaite, Jurgis Rudkus's wife, was based on Meta Fuller, who was Sinclair's wife at the time. [ 10 ]

A film version of the novel was made in 1914. Sinclair played the part of the socialist orator in the film. [ 11 ] Lithuanian immigrant Jurgis Rudkus, the main character was played by George Nash and his teenage wife Ona Luckoszaite, by Gail Kane. Distribution began on May 25, 1914. [ 12 ]

Contents Plot summary

The main character in the book is a Lithuanian man called Jurgis Rudkus, an immigrant to the United States trying to make ends meet. The book begins describing the wedding feast beginning at four o'clock after the marriage in Chicago of Jurgis to a fifteen year old Lithuanian girl named Ona Lukoszaite whom he had known from his Lithuanian days. The second chapter goes back to when Jurgis and Ona were in Lithuania before they married and Jurgis's courtship of her, the death of her father, and their decision to start dating and eventually immigrate to the United States along with her stepmother Teta Elzbieta, and their extended family after hearing how their relative Jokubas Szedvilas is making money there. In the second and third chapters Jurgis and Ona settle in Chicago's infamous Packingtown district, where from the start, Jurgis takes a job at Brown's slaughterhouse. (Brown was a pseudonym for Armour and Company .) Jurgis believes when he immigrates to the United States that it will be a land of more freedom, but soon his employer's treatment of him disappoints him. Alas, they have to make compromises and concessions to survive. Due partly to illiteracy in English, they quickly make a series of bad decisions that cause them to go deep into debt and fall prey to con men. The most devastating decision comes when, in hopes of owning their own home, the family falls victim to a predatory lending scheme that exhausts all their remaining savings on the down-payment for a sub-standard slum house that (by design) they cannot possibly afford. The family is evicted and their money taken, leaving them truly devastated.

The family had formerly envisioned that Jurgis alone would be able to support them in the United States, but one by one, all of them—the women, the young children, and Jurgis' sick father—have to find jobs in order to contribute to the meager family income. As the novel progresses, the jobs and means the family uses to stay alive slowly and inevitably lead to their physical and moral decay. A series of unfortunate events—accidents at work, along with a number of deaths in the family that under normal circumstances could have been prevented—leads the family further toward catastrophe. One injury results in Jurgis being fired; he later takes a job at Durham's fertilizer plant. (Durham was a pseudonym for Swift and Company .) The family's tragedies cumulate when Ona confesses to Jurgis, who is suspicious of her frequent absences from home, that her boss, Phil Connor, had raped her, and made her job dependent on her giving him sexual favors. In revenge, Jurgis later attacks Connor, leading to his arrest and imprisonment by the corrupt judge Pat Callahan, who sides with Connor against Jurgis.

Panorama of the beef industry in 1900 by a Chicago-based photographer

After his stint in jail, Jurgis returns home, only to find out that his family has been evicted. He finds his family at a relative's house; Jurgis also discovers Ona in labor with her second child. Ona dies in childbirth from blood loss at the age of eighteen. Jurgis lacked money to pay for a doctor; so Ona has to rely on the greedy and incompetent Madame Haupt, whose carelessness leads to Ona's death. Soon after their first child drowns in the muddy street, causing Jurgis to flee the city in utter despair and turn to drinking. At first the mere presence of fresh air is balm to his soul, but his brief sojourn as a hobo in rural United States shows him that there is really no escape—even farmers turn their workers away when the harvest is finished.

Men walking on wooden rails between cattle pens in the Chicago stockyard (1909)

Jurgis returns to Chicago and holds down a succession of jobs outside the meat packing industry—digging tunnels, as a political hack, and as a con-man—but injuries on the job, his past and his innate sense of personal integrity continue to haunt him, and he drifts without direction. One night, while looking for a warm and dry refuge, he wanders into a lecture being given by a charismatic Socialist orator, and finds a sense of community and purpose. Socialism and strong labor unions are the answer to the evils that he, his family and their fellow sufferers have had to endure. A fellow socialist employs him, and he resumes his support of his wife's family, although some of them are damaged beyond repair.

The book ends with another socialist rally, which comes on the heels of several recent political victories. The speaker encourages his comrades to keep fighting for victories, chanting "Chicago will be ours!"

Major characters
  • Jurgis Rudkus is a strong-willed Lithuanian who wants a better life for his family. He hears about the freedoms of the United States and decides to emigrate. He works hard, knowing that the welfare of his family and friends depends on him.
  • Ona Lukoszaite Rudkus is Jurgis' teenage wife. Jurgis tries to get her father to sell her to him in her youth so he can marry her because they are in love. Her father does not want to but eventually dies. She then eventually becomes his fiance. She heard of the greatness of the United States from Jurgis, who had never before let her down, when they were in Lithuania shortly before their marriage. She married Jurgis after they immigrated in Chicago. She and Jurgis had a child named Antanas who dies drowning. She is sexually harassed and raped by her boss Phil Connor. Later in the story, while giving birth to her second child, she dies from blood loss.
  • Marija Berczynskas. a masculine woman, who is Ona’s cousin, has a dream to marry a musician and tour with him around the United States. After Ona’s death, and Jurgis's abandonment, she gives up and becomes a prostitute to help feed the few children left.
  • Teta Elzbieta Lukoszaite. Ona’s stepmother, is not very fond of Jurgis. She takes care of the children. Towards the end of the book she is forced to become a beggar.
Minor characters
  • Bobby. a judge
  • Grandmother Swan. the only other Lithuanian in the Immigrant section of Chicago and tells Jurgis everything about the people and the house that Jurgis is moving into.
  • Dede Antanas. Jurgis’s father, is at a very old age and insists to help Jurgis and the family pay for the house and food, but the working conditions get too hard for him, and he dies from a lung infection.
  • Jokubas Szedvilas. a fellow Lithuanian immigrant who owns a deli on Halsted Street
  • Edward Marcinkus. a fellow Lithuanian immigrant and a friend of the family
  • Fisher A Chicago millionaire whose passion is helping poor people in slums. At his house Jurgis meets socialist visionary Nicholas Schliemann.
  • Tamoszius Kuszleika. a fiddler who, for a while, becomes Marija's fiancé
  • Jonas Lukoszas. he is Ona’s blood-related brother, and the one who encouraged the family to go to America in the first place. He leaves the family during bad circumstances and is never heard from again.
  • Stanislovas Lukoszas. a young boy, he is Elizibeta's eldest son, although only 13 years old he gets a job in one of Durham's factories by lying about his age and gets locked in after falling asleep, and gets eaten alive by rats.
  • Mike Scully (originally Tom Cassidy ), the Democratic Party "boss" of the yards (and indirectly responsible for Jurgis' suffering)
  • Phil Connor. a boss at the factory where Ona works. He is attacked by Jurgis after raping Ona.
  • Miss Henderson. Ona's superintendent at the wrapping-room and Connor's former mistress
  • Antanas. a small boy, otherwise known as “Baby”. Antanas Rudkus is Jurgis and Ona’s only son, as a toddler, he falls off an elevated sidewalk and drowns in a deep mud puddle.
  • Vilimas and Nikalojus. Vilimas is Elzbieta's second oldest son, and Nikalojus her third oldest son
  • Kristoforas. a crippled son of Elzbieta
  • Juozapas. another crippled son of Elzbieta
  • Kotrina. Elzbieta's only daughter and Ona's half sister, she is only thirteen, but she has to do all the cooking and cleaning for the family
  • Judge Pat Callahan. a crooked, xenophobic judge who sentences Jurgis to jail time after he beats Connor
  • Jack Duane. a thief that Jurgis meets in prison, he later introduces Jurgis to Chicago's criminal world.
  • Madame Haupt. a midwife hired to help Ona because of the blood loss from her pregnancy, she is either Dutch or German and is portrayed as being greedy and unfeeling, she has to be bribed to help Ona and Ona dies due to her neglect
  • Freddie Jones. the son of a wealthy beef baron who, in a drunken stupor, brings Jurgis to his mansion for food and drink, and who gives Jurgis a $100 bill
  • Buck Halloran. an Irish "political worker" who oversees vote-buying operations
  • Bush Harper. a man who works for Mike Scully as a union spy
  • Ostrinski. a Polish immigrant. A socialist. he befriends Jurgis and teaches him the tenets of socialism, and how it can overcome the evils of capitalist society.
  • Tommy Hind. the socialist owner of Hind's Hotel. He employs Jurgis and encourages him to tell his story of working in the packing plants to guests.
  • Mr. Lucas. a socialist pastor and itinerant preacher
  • Nicholas Schliemann. a Swedish philosopher and socialist
  • Durham. a business man, he is Jurgis’s first employer and takes immigrants and gives them low paying jobs where most of them die because of the horrible working conditions.
Public and federal response

Chicago meat inspectors in early 1906

Upton Sinclair originally intended to expose "the inferno of exploitation [of the typical American factory worker at the turn of the 20th Century]," [ 13 ] but the reading public instead fixated on food safety as the novel's most pressing issue. In fact, Sinclair bitterly admitted his celebrity rose, "not because the public cared anything about the workers, but simply because the public did not want to eat tubercular beef". [ 13 ] This has been attributed in part to the novel's protagonists, most of whom, including Jurgis, have unpleasant qualities themselves, and the last part of the book about the socialist rally Jurgis attended was considered by some to be the worst part of the book, so much so that Sinclair later disavowed it. His description of the meatpacking contamination, however, was something everyone could relate to. [ 14 ]

Sinclair's account of workers falling into rendering tanks and being ground, along with animal parts, into "Durham's Pure Leaf Lard", gripped public attention. The morbidity of the working conditions, as well as the exploitation of children and women alike that Sinclair exposed showed the corruption taking place inside the meat packing factories.

President Theodore Roosevelt considered Sinclair a "crackpot" [ 15 ] and wrote to William Allen White. "I have an utter contempt for him. He is hysterical, unbalanced, and untruthful. Three-fourths of the things he said were absolute falsehoods. For some of the remainder there was only a basis of truth." [ 16 ] However, he read The Jungle and while he was opposed to socialism, agreed with some of Sinclair's conclusions. He stated "radical action must be taken to do away with the efforts of arrogant and selfish greed on the part of the capitalist." [ 17 ] The President was leery of aligning himself with Sinclair's politics and conclusions in The Jungle. so he sent Labor Commissioner Charles P. Neill and social worker James Bronson Reynolds, men whose honesty and reliability he trusted, to Chicago to make surprise visits to meat packing facilities. Despite betrayal of the secret to the meat packers, who worked three shifts a day for three weeks to clean the factories prior to the inspection, Neill and Reynolds were still revolted by the conditions at the factories and at the lack of concern by plant managers. Their oral report to Roosevelt tentatively supported Sinclair, failing only to substantiate the claim of workers falling into rendering vats and being left to be sold as lard. [ 18 ] Neill testified before Congress that they had reported only "such things as showed the necessity for legislation" and that he did not think it was also necessary to "praise things where they were worthy of praise." [ 19 ] A report by the Bureau of Animal Industry rejected Sinclair's severest allegations, characterizing them as "intentionally misleading and false," "willful and deliberate misrepresentations of fact," and "utter absurdity." [ 20 ]

Winston Churchill praised the book in a review, although he did not share Sinclair's socialist political views. [ 21 ]

Roosevelt, not in favor of the heavy regulation the public outcry would have caused, did not release the findings of the Neill-Reynolds Report for publication. Instead, he helped the issue by dropping hints from the report, alluding to disgusting conditions and inadequate inspection measures. [ citation needed ] Roosevelt submitted the Neill-Reynolds report to Congress on June 4, 1906. [ 22 ] Public pressure led to the passage of the Meat Inspection Act and the Pure Food and Drug Act of 1906. which established the Bureau of Chemistry that would become the Food and Drug Administration in 1930.

Sinclair rejected the legislation, as he viewed it as an unjustified boon to large meat packers partially because the U.S. taxpayer, rather than the packing companies, were to bear the costs of inspection at $30,000,000 a year. [ 23 ] [ 24 ] He famously complained about the public's misunderstanding of the point of his book in Cosmopolitan Magazine in October 1906 by stating, "I aimed at the public's heart, and by accident I hit it in the stomach." [ 25 ]

See also Footnotes
  1. ^ http://www.c-spanvideo.org/program/165365-1
  2. ^ Brinkley, Alan (2010). "Chapter 17: Industrial Supremacy". The Unfinished Nation. McGrawHill. ISBN  978-0-07-338552-5.  
  3. ^ Sanger, Margaret The Autobiography of Margaret Sanger Dover page 59
  4. ^ Young, "The Pig That Fell into the Privy," p. 467
  5. ^ http://www.socalhistory.org/bios/upton_sinclair.html
  6. ^ Sinclair, Upton The Jungle Dover Thrift Editions A note pages viii-x
  7. ^ ab SparkNotes Editors (2004). Spark Notes 101: Literature (SparkNotes 101). Sparknotes. ISBN  1-4114-0026-7.  
  8. ^ http://www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/Jupton.htm
  9. ^ Bloom, Harold edited Upton Sinclair's the Jungle pages 50-51 Infohouse Publishing 2002
  10. ^ Arthur, Anthony Radical Innocent, Upton Sinclair Random House New York pages 72-73
  11. ^ Bloom, Harold edited Upton Sinclair's the Jungle pages 35-37 Infobase Publishing 2002 page 37
  12. ^ Gevinson, Alan Within Our Gates: Ethnicity in American Feature Films 1911-1960 University of California Press page 540
  13. ^ ab Sullivan, Mark (1996). Our Times. New York: Scribner. p. 222. ISBN  0-684-81573-7.  
  14. ^ http://www.slate.com/articles/arts/books/2006/07/welcome_to_the_jungle.html
  15. ^ Fulton Oursler, Behold This Dreamer! (Boston: Little, Brown, 1964), p. 417
  16. ^ July 31, 1906, The Letters of Theodore Roosevelt. Elting E. Morison, ed. (Cambridge, Mass. Harvard University Press, 1951–54), Vol. 5, p. 340
  17. ^ http://www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/Jupton.htm
  18. ^ Jane Jacobs, Introduction to The Jungle, ISBN 0-8129-7623-1
  19. ^ U.S. Congress, House, Committee on Agriculture, Hearings Before the Committee on Agriculture. on the So-called "Beveridge Amendment" to the Agricultural Appropriation Bill. 59th Congress, 1st Session, 1906, p. 102
  20. ^ U.S. Congress, House, Committee on Agriculture, Hearings Before the Committee on Agriculture. on the So-called "Beveridge Amendment" to the Agricultural Appropriation Bill. 59th Congress, 1st Session, 1906, pp. 346–350
  21. ^ Arthur, Anthony Radical Innocent: Upton Sinclair Random House New York pages 84-85
  22. ^ Conditions in Chicago Stockyards http://www.theodore-roosevelt.com/images/research/txtspeeches/963.pdf
  23. ^ Young, "The Pig That Fell into the Privy," p. 477
  24. ^ Upton Sinclair, "The Condemned-Meat Industry: A Reply to Mr. M. Cohn Armour", Everybody's Magazine . XIV, 1906, pp. 612-613
  25. ^ Bloom, Harold edited Upton Sinclair's the Jungle Infobase Publishing 2002 page 11
  • Young, James Harvey, "The Donkey That Fell into the Privy: Upton Sinclair's The Jungle and Meat Inspection Amendments of 1906," Bulletin of the History of Medicine. 59, 1985, 467-80.
  • Arthur, Anthony. Radical Innocent: Upton Sinclair. New York: Random House, 2006.
  • In The Brass Check . Sinclair relates that the New York Herald commissioned a follow-up story, "Packingtown a Year Later." The reporters spent two months undercover and found conditions worse than ever; the Herald' s publisher killed the story before publication.
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